ICEGOV2008 – ICEGOV2019
Conference theme

2nd International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance

Cairo, Egypt

1 - 4 December 2007

Summary

Statistics

Submitted papers (127) and published papers (92). 

Ring chart of submitted vs accepted papers (ICEGOV2008).

Acceptance rate (72%) and rejection rate (28%). 

Ring chart of acceptance vs rejection rate (ICEGOV2008).

Proceedings

Tomasz Janowski and Theresa A. Pardo (Eds.). 2008. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV2008). ACM Press, New York, USA. (ISBN: 978-1-60558-386-0)

Accepted Papers

#1
;  Ahmed M. Darwish
ID
#1
Abstract

Good governance is a pre-requisite to attracting investment which is a main element for high growth rate that is needed to create jobs and support the social programs. E-Governance is the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to support good governance. It moves beyond the traditional trend of 'IT in government' models to access information and services interactively. It allows the interactive participation in the decision making process. Emerging information and communication technologies made a significant contribution to the achievement of good governance. In this speech, HE Dr. Ahmed Darwish will present how the Government of Egypt moved forward to achieve good governance, and the role of ICT in this approach. The speech focuses on Egypt's good governance initiative and the E-government program as a tool for achieving E-governance.

Keywords
good governance; electronic government; public services; enterprise resource planning; national databases
Authors
Ahmed M. Darwish
Conference
ICEGOV2008
#2
;  Roland Traunmüller, Christine Leitner
ID
#2
Abstract

The state of e-Government in Europe is presented which is based on the results of the European e-Government Awards 2007 competition. It starts with an overall view on progress and the development of public services. Waves of progress can be discerned as well as diversities in pace and sophistication. Then the contribution focuses on selected challenges: joining up administrations by having interoperability and identity management; higher usage achieved by better service and knowledge enhancement; improvements in citizen participation.

Keywords
E-Government, E-Governance
Authors
Roland Traunmüller, Christine Leitner
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#3
;  Mario Apostolov
ID
#3
Abstract

This talk introduces the concept of single window for export- import clearance as an instrument for good governance. Through unified filing of trade data by government agencies, the single window increases transparency and helps reduce corruption, inefficiency and unfair practices in foreign trade. However, its implementation requires collaboration to harmonize national approaches to Electronic Governance. The talk presents examples of such collaborations and discusses the role of UNECE and generally UN Regional Commissions to the development of Electronic Governance around the world.

Keywords
International Trade, Single Window, E-Governance
Authors
Mario Apostolov
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#4
;  Rahul De’
ID
#4
Abstract

For any research field to advance it has to have its own ‘core’ theory and a set of reference disciplines it draws on and contributes to. Thus far it is clear that E-governance research draws primarily on theory and methods developed in the Management Information Systems (MIS) discipline. MIS itself draws on fields such as Computer Science, Eco- nomics, Sociology, etc. The theory and methods that any e-governance researcher will rely on will be determined by the problems being addressed and the context in which the problems arise.

This tutorial workshop presents an overview of theory used in e-governance research. It then presents an introduction to two richly developed theories in MIS namely - Structura- tion and Actor-Network theory. The presentations highlight the main ideas of these theories with a view to prompting their increased incorporation in e-governance research. E- governance issues for developing countries is also presented, as these constitute a growing area of research. The workshop features three papers that will form the basis for a discussion on state-of-the-art in e-governance theory.

Keywords
E-Governance, Tutorial, Theory, Structuration, Development
Authors
Rahul De’
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#5
;  Vassilis Meneklis, Christos Douligeris
ID
#5
Abstract

In this paper we study the reciprocal interaction between a specific technological construct of contemporary times, namely Information Systems (IS) for e-Government and the way human agents conceive of this construct and employ it in their daily conduct. We build our analysis around case studies concerning two European e-Government research and development projects and try to unravel the subtle threads that form this interaction. It is our position that technology affects our every-day experiences not more than it is shaped by them through recurrent processes of structuring. Finally, we draw on concepts and ideas from past attempts to conceptualize technological artifacts, from our personal experiences and from Structuration Theory to define the concept of “technological integration”.

Keywords
Model of Technology, E-Government, Technological Integration
Authors
Vassilis Meneklis, Christos Douligeris
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#6
;  Jamal Shahin, Matthias Finger
ID
#6
Abstract

This paper will address changes in understanding governance processes thanks to new ICTs. Electronic governance, or the facilitation of governance through ICT and related tools, provides a unique opportunity for reassessment of the traditional methods, processes, and outputs of the public sector. This paper addresses some of these key opportunities and the challenges that accompany them. Practically and concretely, this paper intends to provide support to policy makers by addressing the challenges of developing a strategy for implementation of change towards governance structures that recognise the need to improve participatory methods in policy making whilst also assuring that exclusion – of a digital nature or otherwise – does not render the process counter-productive. It will raise questions of representativeness, meaningfulness, the role of existing institutional elements in current governmental structures, and the question of political will for moving towards a governance that makes use of ICT-based means.

First, we shall address the results and implications of the electronic government debate and outline the challenges that still remain. This will include a stock-taking exercise in the domain of e-government, which builds upon exiting literature in the field, notably the UN Global E-government Readiness Reports as well as thinking towards future research agendas for e-governance, which shall enable us, in Part 3, to move on to discuss innovations in governance, through an analysis of the concept in a liberal democratic context. The fourth part of the paper will address new tools and applications and how they can encourage change in public sector governance.

Keywords
New forms of governance, e-Government, e-Governance, Web2.0, Policy Process, Implementation, Efficiency and Effectiveness, Citizen and Community Participation in Policy Making
Authors
Jamal Shahin, Matthias Finger
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#7
;  Majed Ayyad
ID
#7
Abstract

This paper tries to support the proposition that says “All nations face the same problems while planning, designing and implementing e-Government” and tries to exploit this discussion to investigate possible opportunities to build a framework to organize the body of knowledge needed to create the discipline of e-Government informatics. This paper shows how e-Government employs wide range of theories, techniques, methodologies, models, and frameworks to understand and construct solutions and implement them in a specific context. Then argues that e- Government as a “multidisciplinary overarching system” employs knowledge from applied science, pure science and engineering to adapt to the context it operates in. The paper envisages the possibility of generalizing e-Government knowledge areas based on the large magnitude of reusable knowledge, which are identified through a pattern recognition process and through knowledge mapping techniques. Patterns and knowledge maps are used to show that e-Government is not fuzzy and that its design and implementation follow a logical process, which could be abstracted and generalized across many nations. This paper gives a preliminary framework to construct the e-Government informatics discipline with an aim to qualify people to lead the initiatives of e-Government.

Keywords
e-Government Informatics, Reusable Knowledge, Multidisciplinary Systems
Authors
Majed Ayyad
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#8
;  Jason Musyoka
ID
#8
Abstract

Historically, development theories have recognized the significance of technology for development. The post World War II decades were treated with arguments that utilized pro- technology thinking as a kind of missing link in the then development agenda. However, the rise of neo -classical school from the 1980's onwards has altered the technology-development landscape, by introducing untraditional sets of institutional relations-in particular, reduction of the state, expansion of markets and generally curtailing the civil society. Electronic governance has ascended the world stage from within the neo-classical order. The implications being that market systems define the rules of the game as far as e-Governance operations are concerned. Inevitably, the expansive power allocated to markets by the neo-classical order has generated different forms of regulation, aimed at addressing social polarization. The need for regulation has long been advocated for, by Keynesian and other renowned theorists.

By interrogating these sorts of issues, this paper established that e- Governance negotiates poorly with social goals in particular forms of regimes. In details, the study found that market economies with high levels of e-Governance registers high inequality levels, while mixed or social democracies on medium levels of e-Governance record better trends of social equality. Many developing countries fall under market economies, not by choice, but largely due to dysfunctional bureaucracies. The argument being that when bureaucracies dysfunction, market systems naturally take charge.

On the above account, the study proposed that e-Governance could operate far better in social terms, if it is compartmentalized. It also suggested that e-Governance target human development initiatives at earlier rather than late stages.

Keywords
Electronic Governance, Social Welfare, Governments, Developing Countries, Social Inequalities
Authors
Jason Musyoka
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#9
;  Steve Harris, Jeremy Gibbons, Jim Davies, Andrew Tsui, Charles Crichton
ID
#9
Abstract

Joined-up government depends fundamentally on semantics —- on the computable representation of meaning, so that data is associ- ated with appropriate metadata from the start, and this association is maintained as the data is manipulated. This paper summaries a tutorial and workshop on semantic technologies for supporting electronic government.

Keywords
Metadata, Semantic Markup, Interoperability, Semantic Web, On- tology, Application Firewall, XML, XMI, RDF, SPARQL, OWL, SKOS, SAWSDL, ISO 11179
Authors
Steve Harris, Jeremy Gibbons, Jim Davies, Andrew Tsui, Charles Crichton
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#10
;  Assad Moosa, Eanas Muhsen Alsaffar
ID
#10
Abstract

One of the essential needs to implement a successful e- Government web application is security. Web application firewalls (WAF) are the most important tool to secure web applications against the increasing number of web application attacks nowadays. WAFs work in different modes depending on the web traffic filtering approach used, such as positive security mode, negative security mode, session-based mode, or mixed modes. The proposed WAF, which is called (HiWAF), is a web application firewall that works in three modes: positive, negative and session based security modes. The new approach that distinguishes this W AF among other W AFs is that it utilizes the concepts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) instead of regular expressions or other traditional pattern matching techniques as its filtering engine. Both artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic concepts will be used to implement a hybrid intelligent web application firewall that works in three security modes.

Keywords
e-Government, Web Application, Web Application Firewalls, Negative Logic Based Filtering, Positive Logic Based Filtering, Session Based Filtering, Whitelist, Blacklist, Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic
Authors
Assad Moosa, Eanas Muhsen Alsaffar
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#11
;  Peter Salhofer, Gerald Tritte, Bernd Stadlhofer
ID
#11
Abstract

Semantic technologies are going to be applied to almost all aspects of e-Government. Most of the approaches described so far deal with automatic web service discovery used by software agents. This paper focuses on the use of semantic technologies to support citizens when interacting with e-Government sites. Our experience has shown, that sometimes identifying the appropriate service that is needed to accomplish a tasks can require some in-depth knowledge of existing regulations. To overcome this potential barrier we suggest a relatively simple approach based on the use of ontologies to support citizens to select the correct administrative service. Our approach assists a citizen in formally expressing a goal that can in turn be used for service discovery. This is done by introducing some guidelines and constraints on the model; while this process can be simplified the complexity can be hidden from the user.

Keywords
Semantic Web, e-Government, WSML, WSMO-PA
Authors
Peter Salhofer, Gerald Tritte, Bernd Stadlhofer
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#12
;  Jim Davies, Steve Harris, Charles Crichton, Aadya Shukla, Jeremy Gibbons
ID
#12
Abstract

Effective data sharing, across government agencies and other organisations, relies upon agreed meanings and representa- tions. A key, technological challenge in electronic gover- nance is to ensure that the meaning of data items is accu- rately recorded, and accessible in an economical—effectively, automatic—fashion. In response, a variety of data and meta- data standards have been put forward: from government departments, from industry groups, and from organisations such as the ISO and W3C.

This paper shows how the leading standard for metadata registration—ISO 11179—can be deployed without the need for a single, monolithic conceptualisation of the domain, and hence without the need for universal agreement upon a par- ticular model of electronic governance. The advantages of this approach are discussed with regard to the UK eGovern- ment Interoperability Framework (eGIF) and the UK Inte- grated Public Sector Vocabulary (IPSV).

Keywords
Metadata, Semantic Markup, Interoperability, Semantic Web, Ontology, Standards, Semantic Interoperability, Electronic Government
Authors
Jim Davies, Steve Harris, Charles Crichton, Aadya Shukla, Jeremy Gibbons
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#13
;  Sebastiano Faro, Roberta Nannucci
ID
#13
Abstract

Starting from the description of the reasons why the transnational access to case law is important especially in the context of European legal systems, some major information systems providing access to this type of data are presented. Then, Caselex (Case Law Exchange), a project financed by the EU Commission aiming at deploying a service equipped with a variety of semantic tools facilitating the transnational and multilingual access to national case law, is highlighted. It has been developed by a strong public-private partnership and has as major targets legal professional categories as well as citizens.

Keywords
European Case Law, Transnational Access to Legal Information, Public-Private Partnership, Semantic Retrieval Tools
Authors
Sebastiano Faro, Roberta Nannucci
Conference
ICEGOV2008
#14
;  Sharon S. Dawes, Theresa A. Pardo, Yuanfu Jiang
ID
#14
Abstract

The quality, credibility, and legitimacy of government depends in part on transparency and access to government information. The character, quality, management, and use of information are crucial concerns for effective government. Many different kinds of organizations provide access to government information— libraries, government archives, and public agencies at all levels of government. This paper outlines the challenges facing government information access initiatives and introduces a framework for supporting the development of a holistic view of the specifics of users, uses, organizational capacity, data characteristics, and technology in the context of a complete program, system or process in which these components interact.

Keywords
Government, Transformation, Management, Cross-Boundary Information Sharing, Electronic Governance, Knowledge Sharing
Authors
Sharon S. Dawes, Theresa A. Pardo, Yuanfu Jiang
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#15
;  Lei Zheng, Yuanfu Jiang, Tung-Mou Yang, Theresa A. Pardo
ID
#15
Abstract

This paper examines the technological, managerial, and political barriers as well as enablers for the success of an information sharing initiative in China. A case in the product quality and food safety policy domain is studied. Furthermore, it compares the results of the case study in China with prior research conducted mainly in the western countries to identify similarities and differences, and discusses the impact of political, economic, social and cultural factors on those similarities and differences.

Keywords
Information Sharing, Barriers, Enablers, China, Product Quality
Authors
Lei Zheng, Yuanfu Jiang, Tung-Mou Yang, Theresa A. Pardo
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#16
;  Yasuhito Arimoto, Yuji Watanabe, Michiharu Kudoh, Kokichi Futatsugi
ID
#16
Abstract

It has become a more important role in society to man- age Internal Control in industry while improper activities by well-known corporations are revealed one after another. Financial Instruments and Exchange Law is promulgated on June 14th, 2006, to impose documentation of financial re- porting on Japanese listed companies.

To document financial reporting, each company has to eval- uate control activities in administrative work-flows. Evalu- ation is to check if control activities in administrative work- flows prevent or mitigate latent risks properly. The decision- making criteria for evaluation depend on the evaluator and are not seen explicitly. This causes lack of consistency of evaluation. To avoid inconsistency, the decision-making cri- teria for the evaluation should be specified precisely.

In this paper, we propose a decision-making criterion for evaluation and show how evaluation can be done with it. Evaluation with precisely defined decision-making criteria raises reliability of financial reporting. This research is help- ful to construct an e-Government system for evaluations of business processes for Internal Control.

Keywords
Internal Control, Formal Analysis, Domain Description
Authors
Yasuhito Arimoto, Yuji Watanabe, Michiharu Kudoh, Kokichi Futatsugi
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#17
;  W. Chutimaskul, S. Funilkul, V. Chongsuphajaisiddhi
ID
#17
Abstract

e-Government is employed as a tool for supporting better government administration and public services. The success of e- Government is depending on its quality and usage. The higher e- Government quality, then better administration and services are provided. However, many e-Governments are developed without fully supporting the real government needs and sufficient quality. This paper pointes out three well-known quality aspects, i.e. process quality, information quality and service quality that can be embedded into e-Government. The imperial work on proving e- Government quality is addressed. In addition, the sustainable e- Government development containing four main components, i.e. stakeholder, development methodology, information and communication technology, and environment, is discussed. Integrating the above concepts, the quality framework of e- Government development to guarantee governmental and citizens’ usage and satisfaction is established.

Keywords
e-Government, e-Government Quality, Quality Framework, e- Government Development
Authors
W. Chutimaskul, S. Funilkul, V. Chongsuphajaisiddhi
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#18
;  Ansgar Kondor, Maria Wimmer
ID
#18
Abstract

The effective use of ICT to enable interoperability in public procurement is an area of great significance for achieving the Lisbon objectives, i.e. to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. However, the current European public e-Procurement infrastructure is inappropriate because it is characterized through a high market fragmentation and a lack of interoperability. To facilitate EU-wide interoperability in public e-Procurement the European Commission co-funds the PEPPOL (Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line) project within the Competitive Innovation Programme (CIP) Framework. PEPPOL aims at setting up pan- European pilot solutions that conjointly exist with national infrastructures. The project consists of several building blocks for e-Procurement that cover the entire e-Procurement process from pre-awarding to post-awarding. One of the key building blocks for the pre-awarding phase is the Virtual Company Dossier (VCD), an electronic cross-border document container that carries certificates and attestations required for the qualitative selection of tenderers. In this paper, we introduce findings from existing studies for designing a VCD, such as a feasibility study on Electronic Business Attestation and VCD related European legislations (e.g. Directive 2004/17/EC & Directive 2004/18/EC). Moreover we sketch the approach taken in the PEPPOL project to design pilots in two Member States.

Keywords
Public e-Procurement, e-Tendering, Certificates, Interoperability, Electronic Documents, High Impact Services
Authors
Ansgar Kondor, Maria Wimmer
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#19
;  Marion Janssen, William S. Shu
ID
#19
Abstract

So far, the transformation of public administration has been limited, with technology simply reinforcing its current structures. However, to realize adaptive, transparent, accountable, efficient and agile government providing demand-driven service provisioning at low cost, more radical changes are needed. In this light therefore, transformational government has often been identified as the next challenge for e-government.

This tutorial and workshop are aimed at contributing to the understanding of the scope of the issues in transformational government and approaches to transformation. In the tutorial an overview of transformational government basics is given which covers the whole range, from governance and organization to technology and implementation. During the workshop four papers will be presented, complemented by a discussion of the transformational aspects of e-governments. The papers consider a devolution reference model for e-governance, adaptability through strategic IT planning, and applications linked to community-based poverty reduction and tax administration.

Keywords
Transformational Government, Redesign, Business Process Reengineering, Enterprise Architecture
Authors
Marion Janssen, William S. Shu
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#20
;  M Kashif Farooq, Shafay Shamail, Awais M. Mian
ID
#20
Abstract

Centralized e-Government needs devolution similar to traditional devolutions in political, administrative and fiscal systems. Devolution in e-Governance leads towards a transformational government that provides opportunity for local governments to participate, take ownership and localize the e-services. In this paper, we present a reference model for devolution in e- Governance based on the Reference Model - Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP). We propose a reference model for devolution in e-Government based on devolution of its major elements - enterprise, information, computational, engineering and technology viewpoints. IT and governance experts may use the proposed approach for effective achieving devolution in e- governance programs.

Keywords
Devolution, e-Governance, Framework, Decentralization, RM- ODP
Authors
M Kashif Farooq, Shafay Shamail, Awais M. Mian
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#21
;  Olivier Glassey
ID
#21
Abstract
In this paper, we describe a reorganization project that took place between 2004 and 2007 in a Swiss Cantonal tax administration. The information system was built from scratch by adding a new module each year and the organization was transformed accordingly. We will present the initial objectives of the project and discuss how these objectives evolved with time. We will also describe the lessons learned, particularly regarding the automation and semi- automation of tax declaration assessment and more generally in terms of governance.
Keywords
Reorganization, Process Reengineering, IT Governance, Taxation, Automation
Authors
Olivier Glassey
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#22
;  William S. Shu
ID
#22
Abstract

Prioritising strategic plan executions and determining the most appropriate models and architectures for IT plans, as well as temporally sequencing and reconfiguring the latter for optimal solutions, can be tough without a supporting tool. This article therefore proposes a model where strate- gic plans are simple processes whose basic actions are events that change the states of institutional components and al- ter organisational structure. Therein, the strategic planning process, plan execution, and routine daily tasks are carried out, conceptually, in the same manner. Furthermore, the plans themselves may be reconfigured or modified accord- ing to changing organisational and architectural models for IT activities. The work assumes a formal model of time that enables one to track institutional transformations over time. Hence, the model underpins IT governance issues and tool support to investigate possible future scenarios of what could happen, analyse past activities of what happened, or just perform routine duties.

Keywords
IT Governance, Organisational Structure, Organizational Change, Forecasting
Authors
William S. Shu
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#23
;  Sanjo Faniran, Kayode Olaniyan
ID
#23
Abstract

This paper highlights the opportunities for e-government strategies in the implementation of Nigeria’s Community Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy CEEDS, and details some possible architectural configuration and infrastructural requirements. Using satellite-based communication, the proposed e-government model links up government to citizens (G2C) such that communities can identify their desired projects, communicate with government, implement the project and also provide feedback to the government. Simultaneously, the model enables government to improve programme implementation by identifying opportunities for infrastructure-sharing among contiguous communities, identifying optimal financial resource and risks combination in a cost- efficient manner as well as undertaking monitoring and evaluation of project implementation. It concludes that the citizens would be better off if this technology is deployed in a measured and coordinated way, further leading to the emergence of model e- communities in Nigeria.

Keywords
E-governance, Community Development, Poverty Reduction Strategies, CEEDS, Nigeria
Authors
Sanjo Faniran, Kayode Olaniyan
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#24
;  Wojciech Cellary
ID
#24
Abstract

Each society requires information and communication between people. Available information and communication could deeply influence economy and governance of a society. Appearance and spread of the Internet has substantially changed information and communication impacting economy and governance. The changes may be very beneficial to a society when the right strategy is adopted for harmonizing governmental and economical issues. It appears that most of problems related with transformation of business into e-business and government into e-government are quite similar in different countries independently of the level of their development. The aim of this tutorial is to discuss the strategic impact of e-government on economy and society. In the tutorial, e-Government is seen as a lever to e-economy providing young people finishing schools and universities with a possibility to create job in innovative enterprises offering e-content and e- services for both private and public sectors. The tutorial also discusses conditions under which transformation of traditional government into e-government may contribute to cutting costs of administration and improving its efficiency.

The main aim of the workshop is to share experiences of people involved in e-government solutions development and deployment. The workshop provides an opportunity of mutual inspiration on problem solving provided by people coming from different developing countries.

Keywords
e-Government, e-Business, e-Economy, Knowledge Based Economy, Information Society, e-Content, e-Services, Business and Administrative Processes Reengineering, Data Centers
Authors
Wojciech Cellary
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#25
;  Michael Awoleye, Adeniran Oluwaranti, Willie Siyanbola, Rotimi Adagunodo
ID
#25
Abstract

Several assessment studies on penetration and adoption of computer and the internet have shown that these tools are beginning to change the way citizens interact with one another and also with their governments and vice-versa [1]. An assessment from two states in the South Western part of Nigeria regarding the awareness, use and sustainability of e-Governance in Nigeria was carried out. The perspectives of the government staff as well as other users (non-government staff) were assessed. It was found that 68% of both government employees (GE) and non-government employees (NGEs) are aware of e-Governance in the states, and the governments have achieved this high rate of awareness by means of mass media (30%). Computer literacy amongst employees is put at 19 users out of every 20, and 52% of those that are computer literate have over 3yrs experience in using the computer. Also, 76.6% are reported to have access to the Internet and only 31.3% of those that have access to the Internet have access points in their offices. Proficiency about the use of e- Governance resources was also tested, it was found that about 50% of the users are proficient and about 35% of them use the Internet on a daily basis. Challenges about the e-Governance resource were also discussed and appropriate policy directions are advanced for a better use and its sustainability.

Keywords
e-Governance, Policy, Adoption, Awareness, Resource Use, Sustainability
Authors
Michael Awoleye, Adeniran Oluwaranti, Willie Siyanbola, Rotimi Adagunodo
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#26
;  Seyed Kamal Vaez
ID
#26
Abstract

This paper deals with the key factors that would impact upon the implementation of e-government towards achieving quality services based on measurement and evaluation systems strategies. There are different views on the concept of e-government. However, the adoption of ICT by the public sector will almost consistently affect: Public service delivery; Structure and organizational settings; Ethical, social and political systems; Social needs in the Information era, considering the term “Citizen-centered approach to governing” (e-Governance); Converting the government into a competitive entity through innovation using ICT; Reinventing relations with citizens and the private sector and Team working and collaboration towards Good Government. The paper considers how access to quality measurement and evaluation systems in the public sector can be achieved through the combination of right technology based on social, cultural values and ethical consideration. Finally, it discusses how to build a sustainable evaluation model for Electronic Government quality management.

Keywords
Measurement and Evaluating Systems, Public Sector, Measurement, Government, Quality Management
Authors
Seyed Kamal Vaez
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#27
;  Satishkumar Belliethathan, Yitbarek Weldesemaet, Araya Asfaw
ID
#27
Abstract

Environmental problems in Ethiopia are manifold and impede the country progression from the league of Least Developed Countries. Frequently recurring natural disasters such as droughts and floods are compounding the problem. While there are numerous ICT initiatives in the country, very few of them are dealing with environmental issues in a holistic way. The paper proposes an electronic environmental governance platform and four key environmental thrust areas to be considered for better e- enabled governance, to support the existing efforts in the country to address the enormous environmental problems. The paper also provides a simplified multidimensional electronic environmental governance model. The paper concludes by providing certain areas which needs due attention for ensuring the success of electronic environmental governance.

Keywords
Electronic Sustainability Environmental Governance, Environmental
Authors
Satishkumar Belliethathan, Yitbarek Weldesemaet, Araya Asfaw
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#28
;  Juan M. Luzuriaga, Rodolfo Martínez, Alejandra Cechich
ID
#28
Abstract

Little is understood about which factors affect a software process improvement (SPI) initiative in a governmental organization and how the organization’s environment determines these factors. This lack of understanding can inhibit SPI initiatives in organizations that find themselves too small for formal SPI models or standards. The main objective of our project is to investigate whether the recommendations of a Latin American SPI model – CompetiSoft – would be useful for a middle-ranged governmental organization. In this paper, we introduce a case study, where customer satisfaction is improved. Our preliminary experience indicates that customer satisfaction might be significantly increased by incorporating supporting processes.

Keywords
Software Process Improvement. Software Process Evaluation. CompetiSoft Process Model. Customer satisfaction
Authors
Juan M. Luzuriaga, Rodolfo Martínez, Alejandra Cechich
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#29
;  Jay Keban, Rajiv Shah
ID
#29
Abstract

In this paper, we describe an E-policy tutorial focusing on open standards. The tutorial considers several issues related to open standards including the development process for an open standard, benefits of open standards, government policies on open standards, and interoperability among different implementations of an open standard.

Keywords
Open Standards, Document Formats, Interoperability Testing, Public Policy
Authors
Jay Keban, Rajiv Shah
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#30
;  Jung woo Lee, Kang-Tak Oh, Hun Yeong Kwon
ID
#30
Abstract

This paper reports on a qualitative research results from a series of focus group meetings of twenty government officers concerning e- procurement system development and implementation. Through a focus group session, three emergent foci concerning the e- Procurement systems were identified from the perspective of public administration. Three emergent foci were: (1) consideration of evolutionary developmental stages of e-Government with information sharing and citizens’ participation as important dimensions, (2) criticality of management of technology than the technology itself, leading to nine critical success factors of related projects, and (3) construction of common vocabulary and worldwide reference model for further international cooperation. Practical implications and further research were discussed at the end.

Keywords
Procurement, e-Government, Transparency, Efficiency, Government Reform, Focus Group Interview, Evolutionary Grid
Authors
Jung woo Lee, Kang-Tak Oh, Hun Yeong Kwon
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#31
;  Fawzi Mulki
ID
#31
Abstract

Intellectual property is a major commodity being produced and shared throughout the world. Advancements in technologies coupled with globalization efforts have allowed such property to easily cross geographical boundaries. V arious international treaties and national laws have been set in place to ensure intellectual property owners of their rights. This paper reports the results of an exploratory investigation into the major challenges and returns resulting from the implementation of a national copyright law in Jordan. The paper begins by providing the reader with an overview of Jordan in relation to copyrights. This study relied on both primary and secondary data. The challenges associated with such a law were categorized into implementation, cultural, and socio-economic factors. Respondents identified monetary returns, strategic outcomes, and creative stimulation as key returns resulting from enforcing the law. Finally, the data illustrated that public education and awareness campaigns, and training programs are essential to the success of such a law.

Keywords
Copyright law, Jordan, United States
Authors
Fawzi Mulki
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#32
;  Radha Chauhan, Elsa Estevez, Tomasz Janowski
ID
#32
Abstract

A policy framework is the backbone of public governance and a major contributor to its quality. Such a framework is particularly required in the areas where public governance seeks technology support, as is the case for Electronic Governance (e-Governance). This paper explains the need to put in place a comprehensive set of policies, and presents a model for policy interventions supporting e-Governance development. The model comprises a classification of policies based on their nature and applicability, and describes core areas for which policy interventions are required. The paper also presents three major scenarios for using the model: (1) a tool to help design and analyze critical policy interventions by developing and transition nations, (2) a template to understand different alternatives for interventions, and (3) a checklist to review all niche areas to be regulated. In particular, applicability of the model in India is discussed.

Keywords
Electronic Governance, Policy Interventions
Authors
Radha Chauhan, Elsa Estevez, Tomasz Janowski
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#33
;  Wu Hao
ID
#33
Abstract

Digital Government (DG) has become a hot topic in the field of the governmental administration. In China, various kinds of DG projects mushroomed all over the country. In addition, financial expenditure put in this field was estimated at no less than 5 billion dollars annually. Because USA is birthplace of ICT and Digital Government, many Chinese scholars and officers took on USA as the model of China. Some criticized the digital government in China by using the case of USA as a criterion. Others suggested that China should transplant some experiences of USA directly.

However, the experience from USA does not work well in the practice of China. For example, CIO in government, which was an idea initiated in USA, has not found its seat in Chinese Governments till now. The author of this paper believes that the reasons for such a transfer to fail are great differences between these two countries in the field of political mechanism. Differences existing in the political system and administration are the fundamental reasons resulting in various patterns of DG.

For example, in decentralized countries, Digital Government systems are usually established by local governments at different levels. These systems are usually small and have no interactive links between each other. However, in the countries with centralization of administrative power, DG projects are usually established as integrated systems within a country or a province, with relatively large scale and interactive links more conveniently accessible for governments at different levels, although their application is still far from the ideal in the actual operation.

This article reports the results of research on the influence of the political systems and administrations over DG on the basis of United States of America and China, and puts forward a hypothesis how the political mechanism influences DG.

This research was supported by the Education Ministry of China, under the project 07JZD0019.

Keywords
Political Mechanism, Digital Government, Comparative Study, United States of America, China
Authors
Wu Hao
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#34
;  Toshio Obi
ID
#34
Abstract

Electronic Governance, as defined by UNESCO is “the public sector’s use of information and communication technologies with the aim of improving information and service delivery, encouraging citizen participation in the decision-making process and making government more accountable, transparent and effective”. It can also be described as the process of forming relationship among stakeholders in order to achieve the common consensus. This tutorial will focus on what we consider are the main discussion topics on the relationship between Electronic Governance and Education, namely e-capacity building, and e- literacy, in the context of the existing digital divide and the goal of an inclusive society. For the purpose of this tutorial, we will analyze the interrelation between Electronic Governance and Education considering that the usage of ICTs for Education can lead to increased citizen engagement and participation, strengthening Electronic Governance.

Keywords
Electronic Governance, Organizational Transformation, Citizen Participation, Web 2.0, e-Capacity Building, E-Literacy
Authors
Toshio Obi
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#35
;  Lalanath de Silva
ID
#35
Abstract

In this brief paper I outline the key areas in which e-Governance would be useful in environmental democracy. The paper briefly discusses what environmental democracy means. It lays out a human rights and instrumental argument in favor of access to information, public participation and access to justice (referred to collectively as ‘access rights”) in environmental matters. The paper identifies four barriers to promoting access rights and points to success stories from around the world suggesting how these barriers might be overcome. Much of the paper is based on “Voice & Choice: Opening the Door to Environmental Democracy” published in 2008 by the World Resources Institute. The paper also briefly examines recent research findings that concern access rights for the poor and e-Governance.

Keywords
Environment, E-Governance, Access, Access Rights, Access to Information, Access to Justice, Environmental Democracy, Public Participation, Voice and Choice
Authors
Lalanath de Silva
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#36
;  Rajiv Shah, Jay Kesan
ID
#36
Abstract

This project assesses the current state of interoperability among different software implementations of the document formats OpenDocument Format (ODF) and Office Open XML (OOXML). Numerous governments are considering mandating either or both formats for their electronic documents. For ODF, the dominant implementation is OpenOffice.org and for OOXML, the dominant implementation is Microsoft Office. This research scores the performance of other alternative implementations for ODF and OOXML. The goal is to assess the current state of interoperability for document formats. The results show that there are no alternative implementations, for either ODF or OOXML, that offer 100% compatibility with the dominant implementations. The results are troubling and suggest the need for improved interoperability testing. Without such testing, governments will be locked-in into the dominant implementations for either standard.

Keywords
Open Standards, Document Formats, Open Document Format (ODF), Office Open XML (OOXML), Interoperability testing, Public Policy
Authors
Rajiv Shah, Jay Kesan
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#37
;  Bryan Kirschner
ID
#37
Abstract

The impact of open source software development has challenged commercial companies and government bodies alike to develop new strategies for a changing information and communication technology (ICT) environment. The balanced scorecard—already a widely recognized management best-practice—is well-suited both as a framework for this imperative, and as a mechanism for knowledge-sharing between industry and public sector managers.

First, a balanced scorecard initiative must embrace a multi- disciplinary, multi-stakeholder and community-oriented approach, taking into account the needs of diverse constituencies. Second, public sector e-Government leaders can benefit from the same robust perspective on learning, innovation, and customer satisfaction in addition to financial measures that the balanced scorecard has brought to private sector managers.

This paper shares the experience of one commercial company (Microsoft Corporation) taking a balanced scorecard approach to open source policy and strategy development, and offers an analysis of implications and opportunities for e-Government leaders.

Keywords
Microsoft, Open Source, Balanced Scorecard, Strategy
Authors
Bryan Kirschner
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#38
;  Stacy Avery Baird
ID
#38
Abstract

Understanding the evolution of a complex, competitive environment is always easier in hindsight, but today’s CIOs and government policymakers don’t have the luxury of retrospection when it comes to the volatile world of enterprise software. High- caliber decisions require a clear-sighted, non-dogmatic grasp of the contexts in which government enterprises today deploy both proprietary and open-source software in heterogeneous IT environments. This article addresses the topic, and describes ways in which proprietary and open-source software developers are drawing upon each other’s development, licensing and business models. The article illustrates how today’s IT world is no longer an “either/or” world in which customers and vendors chose to be either proprietary or open source. Instead, it is an attractive world of “both/and” as the lines between proprietary and open source have, making interoperable deployments almost inevitable in many if not most cases.

Keywords
Interoperability, Government, Computer Applications, Enterprise Architecture, Politics, Society, Economy, Public Policy
Authors
Stacy Avery Baird
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#39
;  P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan, C. M. Malish
ID
#39
Abstract

If a health care delivery system can be compared to e-governance system, computing personnel can be equated with the medical practitioners. Extant literature on professional status of computing workforce is inadequate, especially in the context of e- governance. Present paper fills the gap by examining the Indian computing workforce. Four questions were delineated from the literature and examined using primary and secondary empirical data from India. The study indicates that the computing practice is an occupation not a profession, and discusses the policy implications.

Keywords
Computing, Software Work, Profession, Occupation, India
Authors
P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan, C. M. Malish
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#40
;  Christian Sterba, Thomas Giechelig, Martin Pazderka
ID
#40
Abstract

The paper deals with the decision process for IT outsourcing as a governance strategy for IT harmonization. IT harmonization is the standardization of IT solutions and IT functionality within former autonomously acting organizational units with independently grown IT departments. A case study shows the migration and implementation of a lead e-government application in the Austrian federal administration, where records management and workflows were previously operating independently in government agencies. Harmonization has been accomplished via a directed outsourcing decision which also supported the process of harmonizing IT governance. Sourcing design has proven to be crucial in that case, as several stakeholders presented different principle objectives. The approach of the outsourcing decision within the case study is analyzed by examining the decision process and interviewing major participants of the project.

Keywords
Outsourcing, Shared Services, IT Governance, e-Government, Standardization, Harmonization
Authors
Christian Sterba, Thomas Giechelig, Martin Pazderka
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#41
;  Enrico Francesconi, Sebastiano Faro, Elisabetta Marinai
ID
#41
Abstract

Thesaurus interoperability is an important property which guarantees quality in indexing and retrieval of heterogeneous data sources in a distributed environment. It contributes to guarantee semantic interoperability of public services and information quality which are essential features of eGov- ernment implementation policies. This paper presents a methodological framework for semantic mapping between thesauri as well as a specific approach within such frame- work on a case study aimed at mapping five thesauri of in- terest for European Union institutions having only schema information available.

Keywords
Thesaurus Mapping, Term Semantics
Authors
Enrico Francesconi, Sebastiano Faro, Elisabetta Marinai
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#42
;  Shampoo Paul, Kaushalesh Lal
ID
#42
Abstract

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in government agencies as well as educational and research institutions facilitates an efficient, speedy and transparent dissemination of information to the public and other agencies for performance of governments’ administrative activities. The importance of ICT in governance has been recognised the world over. Electronic governance (e-governance) highlights several elements of good governance such as transparency, accountability, participation, social integration, public financial management reforms and development. This study is based on personal interview of selected representatives of the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi and review of e-Governance initiatives taken by the government. The findings of this study highlight the role of Internet, particularly the World Wide Web (WWW), which has made it easier for citizens to locate and download official information and to conduct transactions. We conclude that e-Governance needs to be integrated into the broader public management framework so as to make a substantial change in the government to citizen (G2C) relationship.

Keywords
e-Governance, Delhi Government, Information Communication Technologies, Networked Environment
Authors
Shampoo Paul, Kaushalesh Lal
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#43
;  Mahbubul Alam, Kawsar Ahmed, Md. Ashraful Islam
ID
#43
Abstract

The advent of information and communication technology (ICT) together with the diffusion of the technological advances has resulted in the digital revolution and the emergence of the Information age. The revolution has created an enormous impact on social, political, and cultural livelihood of the masses - taking the whole world into a different era. Bangladesh is one of the developing countries striving strongly for nation building by leveraging ICT. Platforms for interaction amongst the Government, businesses and citizens to ensure easy accessibility of information to all levels of the society could be developed using ICT. e- Governance is the public sector’s use of information and communication technologies with the aim of improving information and service delivery, encouraging citizen participation in the decision-making process and making government more accountable, transparent and effective. This paper focuses on the issues and challenges that Bangladesh currently faces in the implementation of e-Governance. Through collaborative networks of public–private partnerships we discuss how the dual problem of infrastructural barriers and weak ICT policies could be addressed. Specifically, we present a design framework to overcome these obstacles.

Keywords
Public Information, Citizen Engagement, Challenges, ICT, e- Government
Authors
Mahbubul Alam, Kawsar Ahmed, Md. Ashraful Islam
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#44
;  Deepthi Shanker
ID
#44
Abstract

E-governance initiatives in India have been crucial developmental activities undertaken in the recent years. Karnataka state in India has been foremost in implementing many of such e-governance related developmental projects. The paper in progress is an attempt to debate and explore the application of e-governance projects and policies in Indian situation. Implementation and functioning of the some of the e-governance policies and projects at the grass root levels in rural India are considered.

Keywords
ICT, Rural Development, Application, Empowerment, India
Authors
Deepthi Shanker
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#45
;  Christos Manolopoulos, Dimitris Sofotassios, Polyxeni Nakou, Yannis Stamatiou, Anastasia Panagiotaki, Paul Spirakis
ID
#45
Abstract

The successful transformation of e-Government from a nice idea into a successful reality had been hindered by a variety of factors ranging from bureaucratic and legislative inertia to the inability of countries to achieve a sufficient IT penetration in their societies. Nowadays, the fall in IT prices, the development of innovative IT solutions and the rise in IT literacy in a number of countries has, at least tackled the latter issue. However, people still are not as enthusiastic, as it was envisaged by technocrats and politicians, in using IT solutions to pass from e-Government to e-Governance, a notable example of which is e-Voting. In this paper we argue that efforts to introduce complex e-Government and e-Participation applications should be gradual and develop solutions hand-in- hand with in-field trials that increase (also gradually) in complexity and people inclusiveness, so as to handle the various forms of social inertia successfully. We present our experience in the e-Voting domain and suggest that a similar approach in eVoting (and other demanding e-Government/e-Participation applications) could fare better to success than introducing to people a system that suddenly appears and claims to be the “perfect”, all-in-one, solution.

Keywords
A Step-Wise Refinement Approach for Enhancing e-Voting Acceptance
Authors
Christos Manolopoulos, Dimitris Sofotassios, Polyxeni Nakou, Yannis Stamatiou, Anastasia Panagiotaki, Paul Spirakis
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#46
;  Craig A. Burton
ID
#46
Abstract

Networked terminals for marking the electoral register at poll places has been trialed at a number of sites (most recently [5]) allowing immediate detection of attempted multiple voting even in truly anonymous voting systems. We describe new technology piloted in 2007 in a binding local government election. Our commercial remote voting product eLect [1] was extended to provide new services. Firstly, networked register terminals replaced paper registers. Secondly, the networked register formed the basis of enabling single-vote access for poll- place electronic voting. Finally, poll place electronic voting machines were provided as stateless thin clients who were networked for real-time central aggregation of votes. A central server was charged with the coordination of 400 such voting and register machines at 64 sites. Register terminals also formed the basis of recording the issue of paper votes if the voter so chose, as these were provided to allow voting in the traditional manner. In concert with these systems, votes were also collected via telephone and web-based remote electronic voting services. The pilot has been judged a success by the central government.

Keywords
Electronic Voting, Internet Voting, Elections, Voter Registers, 1. INTRODUCTION The use of general purpose computers within current Direct recording and Enumeration (DRE) type voting machines theoretically allows any kind of software to run and possibly attack votes collected therein. General purpose computers also require considerable maintenance because of their complexity. This design may be acceptable for ATM banking machines which enjoy perimeter security and are operated by experts. DREs must be set up by members of the general public and are kept warehoused for most of their operational life where they must be closely guarded. The authors sought to employ a different approach to reduce the risk of insider tampering and provide systems which would be open to scrutiny and meaningful auditing whilst being easy to set up by poll place workers. This document introduces a design for poll place voting which sees thin-clients used for remote access to a centralized register of electors and aggregation of votes. The solution is a network application making use of an open-source software foundation and asymmetric cryptography techniques. The report defines how the system was successfully deployed in Swindon, a regional UK city with 160,000 voters in concert with the normal Council election cycle. Swindon has been an active electoral modernization pilot site for several years (see for example [7]). 2. LOCAL ELECTIONS In the United Kingdom, voters are required to attend only one specific poll place where their respective ballots await them, whereas the electronic systems were to be provided allowing any polling place to serve a specific ballot for any constituent in the entire district. A voter could still vote on paper, but this restricted them to their allotted poll station. In 2007 poll-place electronic voting was made available to all voters who could attend any station on the 3 May. For seven days prior to this, mini poll stations were provided at four libraries. Two remote voting methods were also deployed in addition to postal voting: telephone voting and web-based (Internet) voting. Both remote electronic channels were available for 8 days including polling day. At close of polls, all votes were transported from the central aggregating servers to the count, publicly decrypted under supervision and used as the basis of totaling the count of postal and paper ballots at a conventional counting event. V oter Rolls, Multi-Channel Voting, Multi-Modal Voting, Systems Pilots
Authors
Craig A. Burton
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#47
;  Mahinda Kommalage, Anoj Thabrew
ID
#47
Abstract

The Internet is a relatively new medium for disseminating health information. Most studies on Internet usage for disseminating health information were carried out in developed countries. Very few studies were carried out in developing countries. This study was designed to investigate the quantitative and qualitative information about health related websites in Sri Lanka.

Google and Yahoo search engines were used to search for Sri Lankan health websites. The key words used were ‘Sri Lanka health’, ‘Sri Lanka medicine’, Sri Lanka drug’, ’Sri Lanka treatment’. Ninety eight websites were selected and data collected from 86 of these websites which were online during the period of data collection.

Results show that 87.2% of websites contained less than 100 web pages. 39.5% and 20.9% of websites were owned by local non- business organizations and business organizations, respectively while 61.6% of websites were non-profitable websites. 93% of the websites were published only in English. Only 8.1 % of websites provide health educational content for general public as their main content. 64.4% of websites are controlled by a Sri Lankan or a Sri Lankan organization. Quality Score is higher in the websites owned by local non-business organizations over the business organizations as well as non-profitable websites over profitable websites. Quality Score of the websites does not depend on the period of existence or whether website originated from Sri Lanka.

We conclude that the total number of websites has not increased compared to the increase in internet usage during last few years in Sri Lanka. Internet is an underutilized health education tool despite the rapid growth of internet usage in Sri Lanka. Even though Internet usage has grown rapidly in most developing countries, dissemination of health information through internet may not have been developed adequately in such countries.

Keywords
Developing Countries, Health education, Health Information, Internet, Websites
Authors
Mahinda Kommalage, Anoj Thabrew
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#48
;  Mahbubul Alam, Kawsar Ahmed
ID
#48
Abstract

In today’s world, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has tremendous impact on socio-economic livelihood of people of the country. Government functions are the most profound areas where ICT can play a pivotal role in fostering and ameliorating citizen centric services. Adaptation of e-Governance is a key for smart governance and making information technology (IT) relevant to ordinary citizens in Bangladesh where a large proportion of the population suffers from digital divide. e- Governance will allow ordinary people to interact with the government at various levels on matters of governance to provide inputs for decision makers. To achieve these desired objectives the journey for establishing e-Governance system in Bangladesh faced challenges that can be summarized by three A’s: Access, Awareness and Applications. Being a developing country, it was always a challenge for the country to finance capital intensive endeavours like access backbones and communication infrastructure. Also, newer ICT tools remained beyond the purchasing power of most Bangladeshis. With the proliferation of mobile, while the communication infrastructure challenge is somewhat resolved, the issues of awareness among the public servants and citizen are still low. Such awareness (or lack of it) among middle and senior public officials remained a particular of concern in the context of establishing e-Governance.

This paper presents a baseline assessment of existing capacity, needs and options for implementing e-Governance in Bangladesh.

Keywords
Citizen Expectations, ICT Infrastructure, ICT and Human Resources
Authors
Mahbubul Alam, Kawsar Ahmed
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#49
;  Deepak Rainier, Radha Krishna Pote
ID
#49
Abstract

The effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) services in government administration can greatly enhance existing efficiencies, drive down communication costs, and increase transparency. Karmachari Sanchaya Kosh (KSK) or the Employees Provident Fund (EPF) in English, is a Public Sector Enterprise (PSE) in Nepal that provides social security benefits to its member contributors on behalf of Nepal government. In a country, where the bureaucratic system has been quite slow to adopt ICT and reap its benefits, KSK stands distinctly apart. It is often cited as an example of one of the few government agencies in Nepal which has succeeded in taking forward the computerization agenda and progress towards e- governance. In this case study, we review the same.

Keywords
Nepal. Social Security, Provident Fund, e-Governance, Contribution Management System
Authors
Deepak Rainier, Radha Krishna Pote
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#50
;  Jaijit Bhattacharya, Sushant Vashistha
ID
#50
Abstract

Developing countries are witnessing an upsurge in the number of e-Governance projects being undertaken. This has presented a lot of issues and challenges in efficiently using ICT in delivering effective governance at the lowest societal costs. One of the critical areas where there is duplication of infrastructure and manpower in e-governance is the data center. There are several approaches to e-Governance but most of them require the different government agencies to procure and maintain the entire IT infrastructure themselves. Utility Based Computing (UBC) offers tremendous potential to develop a sustainable e- Governance framework wherein a common data center infrastructure can be setup to provide the e-governance solutions, with different departments being billed as per the usage of the infrastructure. The combined potential of UBC to deliver computing on demand and to pay as you go paradigm offer a new approach to deliver cost-effective and efficient governance to the citizens. However, this framework has also its risks and issues.

Keywords
e-Governance, Utility Based Computing, SWUC framework
Authors
Jaijit Bhattacharya, Sushant Vashistha
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#51
;  Steven Wu, Philip Chua
ID
#51
Abstract

In this case study, we trace the rationale, development and operation of the Integrated Museum Collection Management System as a software-as-a-service solution for public as well as private museums in Singapore. This on-demand service may serve as a model for other public services particularly in the context of business process re-engineering and standards adoption. It comprises a traditional client-server solution for internal users and a web frontend for public search. From the operation perspective, the service has posed challenges in delivery and support. Lastly, standards and technology adoption issues have to be addressed.

Keywords
Museum Management, Metadata Standard, Software-as-a-Service (SAAS), Solution Customization, Metadata, Application Profile, Architecture, Total Cost of Ownership, Information Lifecycle Management, Service Management, e-Commerce
Authors
Steven Wu, Philip Chua
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#52
;  Giorgos Pentafronimos, Spyridon Papastergiou, Nineta Polemi
ID
#52
Abstract

The provision of Web Service-based services in many areas of the digital world such as the e-Government still involves addressing interoperability of these services. Several testing methodologies that evaluate the interoperability of the services indicate the need for a machine-readable representation of the test cases allowing the automation of the test process. Existing languages for representing test cases demonstrate specific weaknesses. This paper identifies these weaknesses and proposes a sequence of steps for the definition of test cases and a XML representation of them based on the XML Requirement and Test language (XRT).

Keywords
Keywords Interoperability, Web Services (WS), Test Cases
Authors
Giorgos Pentafronimos, Spyridon Papastergiou, Nineta Polemi
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#53
;  Marijn Janssen, Ralph Feenstra
ID
#53
Abstract

Nowadays new systems for electronic service delivery are comprised of components. These components may be locally developed, managed and optimized and not intended to be reused in composite applications. By compositing modular components in new systems large, distributed systems can be developed in which services provided by various stakeholders are combined. The creation of service compositions is an ill-posed and ill- structured design problem which must be tackled with great care and should take into account the various stakeholders and their technological systems.

In this paper we present a socio-technical design approach for developing service compositions. This approach starts with analyzing both user requirements and analyzing available services. This is in contrast with existing approaches, which are primarily supply-driven, i.e. they take the available services as a starting point. In addition, the individual service components need to be coordinated to create a coherent composition. Therefore, the dependencies among components are analyzed which help to identify feasible and alternative compositions and enable communication and negotiation among stakeholders. We found that the dependencies among systems components are often viewed as simple sequential, connections whereas, they might not be. Moreover, it was found that a method focused on technical design alone, like most current composition approach, will be insufficient and that stakeholder-related social aspects need to be considered. A service compositions approach in organizational networks requires a high degree of stakeholder participation.

Keywords
Socio-technical Design, Coordination, Web Services, Service Composition, Service Oriented Architectures, Public Service Networks, e-Government
Authors
Marijn Janssen, Ralph Feenstra
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#54
;  Frances Slack, John Walton
ID
#54
Abstract

We propose the deployment of strategic models such as the Cultural Web and stakeholder analysis to gain insights into the delivery of e-Government in a local authority in the United Kingdom. Despite using mature technological approaches, the implementation issues can only be addressed using organizational frameworks with an information systems focus. A joint venture between a telecommunications company and local authorities in the UK has provided a case study for exploration of the role of post-graduate education as an intervention in organizational transformation. This approach identifies and suggests initiatives that involve meeting and addressing the different demands of stakeholders. Data collection has been carried out through qualitative methods of interviews and participant observation. In addition, action research has been used to explore the perceptions and learning of the students in this case study. The outcome has indicated the paradigms of the two groups involved in the case study. It has revealed further research questions to be addressed in the implementation of e-Government at both local and national levels in the UK and, we expect, the wider world.

Keywords
Stakeholder Management, The Cultural Web, Action Research
Authors
Frances Slack, John Walton
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#55
;  As?m Balc?, Erhan Kuma?, Hamza Ta?delen, Elif Süngü, Tolga Medeni, Tunç D. Medeni
ID
#55
Abstract

This paper discusses the development and implementation of e- government services in Turkey. With the background information about e-government in general, Turkish case of e- government initiatives is discussed with a specific focus on “e- Government Gateway Project”. Issues of Standardization, Inclusion, Citizen Satisfaction, Integration and Interoperability are highlighted as current, hot topics and future prospects.

Keywords
E-Government, E-Government Gateway, Turkey, Standardization, Inclusion, Citizen Satisfaction, Integration and Interoperability
Authors
As?m Balc?, Erhan Kuma?, Hamza Ta?delen, Elif Süngü, Tolga Medeni, Tunç D. Medeni
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#56
;  Myriam Cecilia Dueñas Parada
ID
#56
Abstract

This document describes the e-Government initiative developed by entities of the National Environmental System for the design and development of the Environmental Information System of Colombia which looked to implement the principles and foundations of the Society of Information defined in the World Summit of the United Nations. The strategy is analyzed emphasizing on the human aspects, recognizing that the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is the way and not the end itself, to integrate several social groups in the search of sustainable development. It describes the background, strategy, limitations and challenges of the e-Government initiative.

Keywords
Information Management, Knowledge Networks, Human Factors
Authors
Myriam Cecilia Dueñas Parada
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#57
;  Johan van Wamelen, Dennis de Kool
ID
#57
Abstract

Web 2.0 applications gain in importance in today’s society. This development cannot be ignored by the public sector, because Web 2.0 can take the evolution of E-Government in new directions. This paper discusses the impact of (local) Web 2.0 applications on the further development of E-government. Web 2.0 applications have much potential for the public sector in terms of interaction, participation and transparency. However, examples of websites with transaction or transformation characteristics are rare. For that reason it is too early to speak about a virtual state. In order to realize these two final stages of E-Government, it is important to take into account the potential risks of Web 2.0 applications as well, like isolation, exclusion, violation of privacy and misuse of information.

Keywords
Web 2.0, e-Government, Second Society
Authors
Johan van Wamelen, Dennis de Kool
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#58
;  Peter Mambrey
ID
#58
Abstract

This paper informs about the public policies on e-Participation in Germany. At the moment e-Participation happens in political niche arenas and does not have real impact or importance on political decision-making. Activists and researchers promote the field of e-Participation but not the institutional political system. Thus no coherent strategies or public policies exist by political bodies at federal or state level. The e-Participation experiments practically show the options and risks of innovations of the political system in regard to better represent or empower the citizens but do not allow a generalization of the often somewhat sobering results. Currently the German federal government shows rising awareness for e-Participation but sees it as an integrated part of a representative e-Government. Driving forces of innovation, the political system towards e-Participation comprises activists and civil society movements simply using web 2.0 tools and techniques for their purposes: better organization, rising awareness and gaining power.

Keywords
Digital Democracy, e-Participation, e-Government, Communicative Actions
Authors
Peter Mambrey
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#59
;  Rama Krishna Das, Manas Ranjan Patra, Subash Chandra Mahapatra
ID
#59
Abstract
This paper describes our experience in the implementation of “e- Grama” project in nine different districts of Orissa province in India. The project was initiated as a pilot in one of the relatively developed districts and extended to eight other underdeveloped districts of the province. The research findings elaborate on how “e-Grama” is helping as a tool to bridge the digital divide and capacity building in the rural areas. It also highlights the active role of volunteers of youth clubs affiliated to the Government and different local non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in the successful implementation of the project. It explains how “e- Grama” has served as an effective tool for the Government to disseminate varieties of information to the rural mass. It also puts forth the problems faced during the implementation of “e-Grama” in the underdeveloped districts. Finally, it is shown that how the public-private-people partnership model of “e-Grama” accounted for the successful implementation of the project with the active involvement of the citizen.
Keywords
Digital Divide, e-Governance, e-Literacy, Intranet, Capacity Building, e-Grama
Authors
Rama Krishna Das, Manas Ranjan Patra, Subash Chandra Mahapatra
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library
#60
;  Driss Kettani, Asmae El Mahdi
ID
#60
Abstract

The two-year decade behind the rise and expansion of Internet has lead to ICT-enabled public sector reforms known as e- Government and e-Governance. These contribute in changing and reforming governments’ tiers and branches. Nevertheless, digital divides persist regionally. For instance Africa lags behind other continents in e-Government efforts and related achievements, evidenced in low scores reported by the United Nations global readiness surveys and related index[6].

One issue emerging from e-Government practices and crucial in bridging the digital divide regionally is the need for “Back office” automation or “integration”. Known as connected governance, it is a critical enabler transforming capabilities and delivering far- reaching benefits. The lack of connected governance in the developing world is a disturbing and challenging issue. This article presents the eFez project from Morocco, a case study outlining the lessons learned in back office integration.

Keywords
Local Public Administration, Citizens’ Lives Events, Record Keeping, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Back Office Automation
Authors
Driss Kettani, Asmae El Mahdi
Conference
ICEGOV2008
URL
ACM Digital Library

Institutions

Patron
  • Ministry of State for Administrative Development, Government of Egypt

 

Co-organized by
  • Center for Electronic Governance, United Nations University International Institute for Software Technology
  • German University in Cairo

Comittees

Conference Committee

Rilwan BASANYA, United Nations University, Technical Chair
Wojciech CELLARTY, Poznan University of Economics, General Co-Chair
Remi CHANDRAN, United Nations University, Publicity Chair
Jim DAVIES, Oxford University, Workshops Chair
Zamira DZHUSUPOVA, United Nations University, Sponsorship Chair
Elsa ESTEVEZ, UNU-IIST, Macau SAR, Tutorials Chair
Valerie GREGG, CTG, University at Albany, Panels Chair
Wendy HOI, United Nations University, Financial Chair
Tomasz JANOWSKI, UNU-IIST, Macau SAR, Program Co-Chair (Conference Coordinator)
Marijn JANSSEN, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands Paper Sessions Chair
Ahmed KAMAL, Ministry of State for Administrative Development, Government Liaison Chair
Ralf KLISCHEWSKI, German University in Cairo, Egypt, Organization Chair
Adegboyega OJO, UNU-IIST-EGOV, Macau SAR, Events Chair
Theresa PARDO, CTG, Program Co-Chair
Jochen SCHOLL, University of Washington, United States, Posters and Demos Chair
Ekwow SPIO-GARBRAH, Commonwealth Telecommunications Organisation, General Co-Chair

 

Advisory Committee

Olu AGUNLOYE, National e-Government Strategies, Nigeria
Akylbek AIDRALIEV, Prime Minister Office, Kyrgyzstan
Wojciech CELLARY, Poznan University of Economics, Poland
Ahmed DARWISH, Ministry of State for Admin. Development, Egypt
Sharon DAWES, CTG, University at Albany, United States
Helena KERR DO AMARAL, National School of Public Administration, Brazil
Maria Isabel MEJIA JARAMILLO, Agenda Conectividad, Colombia
Mike REED, UN University
Maurice TCHUENTE, University Yaounde I, Cameroon
Chi MAN TOU, MSARG, Macau SAR
Roland TRAUNMÜLLER, University of Linz, Austria
Donna WOOD, Canada Department of Heritage, Canada

 

Awards Committee

Oliver BELL, Microsoft Corporation, United States
Helani GALPAYA, LIRNEasia, Sri Lanka
Maddalena SORRENTINO, University of Milan, Italy
Maria WIMMER, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany

 

Program Committee

Hamideh AFSARMANESH, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Akylbek AIDRALIEV, Prime Minister’s Office, Kyrgyzstan
Almaz BAKENOV, National IT Center, Kyrgyzstan
Oliver BELL, Microsoft Corporation, United States
Robert BIUK-AGHAI, University of Macau, Macao
Nikolaj BJORNER, Microsoft Corporation, United States
Luís CAMARINHA-MATOS, UNINOVA, Portugal
Donna CANESTRARO, CTG, University at Albany, United States
Alejandra CECHICH, University of Comahue, Argentina
Wojciech CELLARY, Poznan University of Economics, Poland
Antonio CERONE, UN University
Radha CHAUHAN, Ministry of Communications and IT, India
David CHEUNG, HKU, Hong Kong
Meghan COOK, CTG, University at Albany, United States
Rowena CULLEN, University of Wellington, New Zealand
Jim DAVIES, Oxford University, United Kingdom
Lester DIAMOND, US Social Security Administration, United States
Elsa ESTEVEZ, UN University,
Matthias FINGER, ETH, Switzerland
John FITZGERALD, Newcastle University, United Kingdom
Kokichi FUTATSUGI, JAIST, Japan
Helani GALPAYA, LIRNEasia, Sri Lanka
Urs GASSER, Harvard Law School, United States
Jose Ramon GIL-GARCIA, CIDE, Mexico
Yanbo HAN, ICT Institute, CAS, China
Chris HINNANT, US General Accountability Office, United States
Eduard HOBY, University of Southern California, United States
Tomasz JANOWSKI, UN University, (Program Co-Chair)
Marijn JANSSEN, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands
Luiz Antonio JOIA, EBAPE, Brazil
Atreyi KANKANHALLI, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Jay KESAN, University of Illinois, United States
Young SIK KIM, Ministry of Communications and IT, Afghanistan
Stephen KING, Leeds University, United Kingdom
Ralf KLICHEWSKI, German University in Cairo, Egypt
Padmanabhan KRISHNAN, Bond University, Australia
Calvin LEONG, SAFP, Macau SAR Government, Macau
Grant LUPIYA, Government of Malawi, Malawi
Ann MACINTOSH, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Robert MASLYN, US General Services Administration, United States
Maria Isabel MEJIA JARAMILLO, Agenda Conectividad, Colombia
Sehl MELLOULI, University of Laval, Quebec, Canada
Vassilis MENEKLIS, University of Piraeus, Greece
Hrushikesha MOHANTY, University of Hyderabad, India
Sanghamitra MOHANTY, Utkal University, India
Vikas NATH, South Centre, Switzerland
Bjorn NIEHAVES, University of Munster, Germany
Tsend NYAMKHUU, ICTA, Mongolia
Toshio OBI, Waseda University, Japan
Tunji ODEJOBI, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria
Adegboyega OJO, UN University,
Theresa PARDO, CTG, UAlbany, United States (Program Co-Chair)
Marco PERES, Universidad de Externado, Colombia
Vasillios PERISTERAS, DERI, Ireland
Devendra POTINIS, SUNY-Albany, United States
Vivek S. RANA, AAC Inc., Nepal
Thomas RILEY, Commonwealth Center for e-Governance, Canada
Abebe RORISSA, University at Albany, United States
Jeffrey ROY, Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada
Sabri SAIDAM, Palestinian Authority, Palestine
Jochen SCHOLL, University of Washington, United States
Robert SCHWARE, Academy of Edu. Development, United States
Mohamed SHAREEF, National Centre for IT, Maldives
William SHU, Univesity of Buea, Cameroon
Madeleine THIEL SIÖSTEEN, VINNOVA, Sweden
Maddalena SORRENTINO, University of Milan, Italy
Yudho Giri SUCAHYO, University of Indonesia, Indonesia
Giri Kumar TAYI, CTG, University at Albany, United States
Helgi THORBERGSSON, University of Iceland, Iceland
A Min TJOA, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Christine WILLIAMS, Bentley College, United States
Maria WIMMER, University of Koblenz, Germany
Jiang YUANFU, National School of Administration, China
Lin ZHU, East China University of Science and Technology, China

 

Additional Reviewers

Yasuhito ARIMOTO
Rilwan BASANYA
Shane BRACHER
Agustina BUCCELLA
Jeremy BRYANS
Xiaoyi CHEN
Yuki CHIBA
Andres FLORES
Weiqiang KONG
Nikos LOUTAS
Cyprian F. NGOLAH
Tsoodol NYAMKHUU
Kazuhiro OGATA
Chris PHILLIPS
Sandra ROGER
Peter Y. A. RYAN
Luis Alvarez SABUCEDO
Siraj SHAIKH
Volker STOLZ


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