ICEGOV2019 Accepted Papers with Abstracts

Tagelsir Gasmelseid. Modeling AMLC Processes in Central Banks using a Hybrid Intelligent Infrastructure
Abstract: Money laundering has been connected with different financial and economic complications that challenge the realization of development goals. Being regarded as the most serious criminal activity in the era of electronic government, money laundering (ML) is taking different "shapes" and is affecting different sectors. The scale and magnitude of such complications differ across countries and regions depending on the relevance of the entire economic and political environment for committing illegal practices due to corruption and lack or weakness of controls. While it shows a trend of increase over years, there is a considerable difficulty in estimating the amount of only being laundered across the world, despite the efforts of international organizations to do so. Different initiatives and anti-money laundering frameworks have been developed and operationalized at national and international levels. The main focus of such initiatives tend to be made on enhancing the ability of financial and regulatory institutions to understand the main features and financial histories of their customers as a prerequisite for developing appropriate anti-money laundering control systems (AMLCSs). Current AMLCSs are challenged with different design, engagement and processing complications that warrant the use of hybrid and coupled technological settings and computational concepts. While the basic aim of such an infrastructure is to facilitate decision making in Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) and/or central Banks, it also aims at enhancing cooperation towards compacting money laundering activities and encouraging the concerned stakeholders (e.g., commercial banks and other users) to act as partners rather than restricting themselves to "compliance". Within the context of e-governments, the development and operationalization of hybrid infrastructures to model anti-money laundering processes looms very big.
Emily Rempel, Julie Barnett and Hannah Durrant. Contrasting views of public engagement on local government data use in the UK
Abstract: Government at all levels in the UK and around the world face increasing challenges in regulating and governing their own use of data and data technologies, including at the local level. At the same time publics are increasingly aware of and critical towards incidents of data misuse and unethical data technology development. One solution to addressing these socio-technical questions of good government data use is public debate and inclusion through public engagement. In order to empirically develop a base on which such public engagement could rest, our aim is to compare and contrast different views on public engagement on government data use in the UK We conducted a series of seven focus groups with government, technical, and non-technical publics on this topic. Transcripts from these focus groups were thematically analysed by group for common themes. All three groups expressed wariness towards increased data collection and monitoring, as well as a sense of criticism on whether local governments use data effectively in policy decision-making. In discussing their views of public engagement, the technical and government groups expressed concerns on the ‘public’ being data illiterate and all three groups imagined the ‘public’ as disinterested in data use and policy-making. In contrast, good public engagement was described as focusing both on the means and ends of policy-making with data, being influential on local government process, and offering multiple mechanisms of participation. In conclusion, while good public engagement is imagined as empowering and beneficial to publics and data technology development alike, participants struggled to imagine a public that would be interested in public engagement exercises. This suggests a first step in developing public engagement exercises on government data use within the UK is reflecting on the mechanisms that may lead to an actual or assumed disinterested and unaware public.
Reshma Agarwal and Vinay Thakur. Service Delivery Maturity Assessment
Abstract: United Nations has developed a four stage maturity model for measuring online service development consisting of Stage I: emerging information services, Stage II: enhanced information service, Stage III: transactional services and Stage IV: connected services. This paper has extended this framework further in order to obtain the maturity level score for individual eServices being provided by eGovernment.
The paper attempts to score each service delivery stage usually required in order to deliver the eService successfully like beneficiary selection, spreading awareness about the eService, accessibility, ease of use, beneficiary enrolment, authentication, payment modes, enquiry, workflow tracking, delivery of benefit and user feedback. This enables us to calculate a maturity score for each service delivery aspect and thus formulate overall maturity score for the eService.
The paper also tries to demonstrate the application of the proposed service delivery rating Metrics in order to determine the maturity score of an eService.
The purpose of the Service Delivery Rating Metrics is to provide a tool to the Government enterprise , to rate the quality of eServices provided by its member organization to the users
Galbaatar Lkhagvasuren. Ensuring rights of the data subject in non-EU countries
Abstract: Some concepts of legal protection of data subject first guaranteed by the Council of Europe Convention for the Protection of Individuals with Regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data ("Convention 108") in 1981. However, the Convention 108 lacked to stipulate rights of a data subject. Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union that was approved on 24 October 1995 has secured two particular rights of data subject, which are right of access to data and right to object data processing. Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council, which guarantees all rights of the data subject in European Union was adopted on 27 April 2016.

However, these rights of data subject that secured through above regulations are only applicable to the European Union, not to other countries. This article aims to identify the rights of data subjects in non-EU countries by thoroughly examining national legislations of such countries and compare them to the European Union. Based on the examination, the article attempts to propose potential ways of ensuring rights of the data subject in non-EU countries.
Rajesh Narang. Multi Cloud Micro Service Architecture for Government e-Market Place
Abstract: The general understanding about Micro Service Architecture and practices of DevOps is nebulous, so in this paper a new architectural design pattern: Ingress and Egress API Gateway design pattern, and a new set of DevOps practices are defined. These have been successfully applied in Government e-Marketplace national portal of Indian Government. A systematic research was done to study Micro Services Architecture used in Amazon, eBay and the four research systems that are available in open domain. It was found that existing design patterns and practices are inadequate so to fill up the gaps new design patterns and new practices have been defined and implemented to bring in transformation in business processes of e-procurement. By embracing automated processes and tools in reshaped stages: continuous integration, continuous delivery and continuous deployment of life cycle phases of software projects the overall .development and deployment velocity of new features has become faster.
Santiago Garcia Devis, Martha Liliana Pilonieta Albarracin and Sebastian Jaramillo. Blockchain for the verification of document integrity
Abstract: The research performed by the Universidad Distrital Francisco Jose de Caldas Colombia and sponsored by the Innovation Center of the Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications and the United Nations Development Program, aims to understand the functionality of Blockchain in the Colombian context, and specifically in the governmental sector. The researchers expect to determine how Blockchain can be used to verify the authenticity of documents and people when they undertake administrative procedures before the State and also to obtain a proven technical model through a pilot, where Blockchain’s usefulness for the verification of a document’s authenticity and integrity verification is proven.
Su-Kit Tang, Rita Tse and In Man Song. Smart Green Tool for the Government: The Electronic Vehicle Identification in Management of Public Bus Services
Abstract: As the number of vehicles running on the road increase, the traffic control becomes a serious problem in many historical cities, like Macao. Public transportation would hardly run and manage. In this research project, we propose the Electronic Vehicle Identification (EVI), which is a smart device with low-energy Bluetooth connection that exchanges the vehicle information and allows external communication with other control systems. As an ID for vehicle, it can be uniquely identified a vehicle and communication with vehicle is allowed. To illustrate the correctness of EVI, we conducted an experiment by using a Bluetooth reader to connect to EVI to discover the movement of bus vehicle departing or arriving at the bus terminal. The result shows that the bus vehicles can be captured on the road effectively, which can be used to support the Macao traffic department in optimizing road resources, managing traffic and making development plan.
Ben Sta Hatem. Approach for Measuring the Quality and efficiency of Data in the Context of Smart Cities Strategy: Case Study of Transport System
Abstract: As a new form of sustainable development, the concept “Smart Cities” knows a large expansion during the recent years. It represents an urban model, refers to all alternative approaches to metropolitan ICTs case to enhance quality and performance of urban service. However, the smart cities based on distributed and autonomous information infrastructure contains millions of information sources that will be expected more than 50 billion devices connected by using IoT or other similar technologies in 2020. In Information Technology, we often need to process and reason with information coming from various sources (sensors, experts, models,). Information is almost always tainted with various kinds of imperfection: imprecision, uncertainty, ambiguity, we need a theoretical framework general enough to allow for the representation, propagation and combination of all kinds of imperfect information. The theory of belief functions is one such Framework. Real-time data generated from autonomous and distributed sources can contain all sorts of imperfections regarding on the quality of data e.g. imprecision, uncertainty, ignorance and/or incompleteness. Any imperfection in data within smart city can have an adverse effect over the performance of urban services and decision making. In this context, we address in this article the problem of imperfection in smart city data. We will focus on handling imperfection during the process of information retrieval and data integration and we will create an evidential database by using the evidence theory in order to improve the efficiency of smart city. The expected outcomes from this paper are 1) to focus on handling imperfection during the process of information retrieval and data integration 2) to create an evidential database by using the evidence theory in order to improve the efficiency of smart city. As experimentation we present a special case of modelling imperfect data in the Transport field. An evidential database will be built which will contain all the perfect and imperfect data. These data come from several Heterogeneous sources. Imperfect aspects in the evidential database expressed by the theory of beliefs.
Sushil Prakash and I Gunalan. Accelerating Government Digital Transformation in India- A Case Study
Abstract: Digital India is a flagship program of the Government of India with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. Under this broad vision, transforming the functioning of the government to provide governance and services on demand using digital technologies is a key focus area for the government. This transformation requires not only the restructuring and refocusing of existing programs to align them with the principles of Digital India but also the launching of new programs, all to be implemented in a synchronized manner. A need for a suitable implementation framework was keenly felt to achieve this objective plus the target to accelerate the progress of government digital transformation. This paper establishes, first through technical literature survey and through shared evidence from the experience of a few leading countries that it is necessary to develop the technology and skills capability as well as to adopt a suitable framework for implementation and evaluation of the digital transformation initiatives in the government. It then presents a structured, goal-based, data-centric framework designed for program management of the e-governance project portfolio of the States in India. In conclusion, the paper validates this successfully implemented framework to demonstrate that a structured framework can effectively monitor, evaluate and accelerate the country’s digital transformation process.
Vicente Pitogo. Commitment on data privacy towards e-governance: The case of local government units
Abstract: The proliferation of ICT in the government sector is a crucial tactic in achieving different dimensions of public trust and services, especially government offices and local government units (LGUs) are gearing toward e-governance as a way to manage and utilize ICT infrastructure. Moreover, in engaging ICT services, personal data and other critical information must be safeguarded and not exposed publicly. In the Philippines, data privacy act of 2012 (DPA 2012) was promulgated to vanguard sensitive information and data protection, and impose legal sanctions to any organization breached therein. This empirical study aims to explore LGUs on their commitment to data privacy, assess their level of compliance and examine factors that hinder their defiance. The method used is qualitative research in a case study technique, using a multiple case holistic design. Outcomes pattern matching is also used to triangulate records against expected patterns. Results show that before the enactment of DPA 2012, the LGUs under study are not compliant. However, after the passage and the national privacy commission (NPC) took action, a significant leap has observed. Determinants of compliance, such as deterrence, legitimacy and moral obligation and organizational commitment like administrator’s leadership and government governance skills and employee’s commitment constructs have compelling casual factors why LGUs are complying with the law. Upon further assessment, pressing concerns are also perceived, such as lack of awareness, wait-and-see attitude, and resource and time constraints. In sum, LGUs are trying to fast-track, overhaul or re-engineering their processes and operations, including ICT infrastructure acquisition, resource allocation, including qualified ICT personnel apportionment as compliance initiatives and commit themselves to full compliance towards the establishment of better government and e-governance.
Batzorig Chimegbat. An exploratory study of the accessibility of Mongolian legal information Web site
Abstract: Getting the judicial information was challengeable for citizens until 2006 in Mongolia. It pushed legal resources to become online because emerging Web technologies has impacted citizens’ perception of accessing to the government information. As a result, the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs (MOJHA) has developed a Mongolian legal information Web site as a formal digital database of all statutes. However, citizens with disabilities have been excluded from having a benefit of online resources because of its inaccessible design and technology. Less attention has been paid on the accessibility of this Web site, even though there have been legal mandates. Thus, this study examines if the Mongolian legal information Web site is accessible or not for users with disabilities in compliance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0 Priority 1 criteria. Primary pages of the Web site are substantially inaccessible for disabled customers according to the result of both automated and manual assessments. Eventually, the Mongolian legal information Web site must be accessible to cater equal opportunity to all citizens. This paper presents the results of automated and manual evaluation of Mongolian legal information Web site.
Olumoye Y Mosud. The Perceptions of Public Officials on the Critical Issues Affecting e-Government Implementation in Nigeria: A Qualitative Approach
Abstract: Various countries across the globe are implementing e-Government as an essential strategy in their operations in order to deliver timely, useful information and cost-effective services to their citizens. However, this initiative appears to have failed to accomplish its full potential because of the various critical issues affecting its implementation. Like many other underdeveloped countries, Nigeria has a low level of e-Government system implementation. The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the critical issues affecting the successful implementation of e-Government in Nigeria from public officials’ perspective. To achieve this research goal, the study proposes a research model underpinned by Technology-Organisation-Environment and drivers-barriers models, which provides a framework to identify the critical issues surrounding e-Government implementation in Nigeria. The study adopts a multiple case study of five public sector agencies with a qualitative approach. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview guide involving fifteen individual interviewees. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results of the findings show that the critical issues affecting the successful implementation of e-Government in Nigeria can be categorised as technological, organisational, environmental, barriers and threats. The study, therefore, suggests the need for the Nigerian government to address these issues in order to implement e-Government successfully in the country, and benefit from the largesse the initiative has to offer.
Rajesh Sharma and Sanjog Ray. Exploring the Impact of Mobile Technology Adoption on Financial Sustainability of Telecenters: The case of India
Abstract: Developing countries, with limited ICT resources available, are heavily dependent upon Telecenters for delivery of e-Government services to citizens, especially in rural areas. As a result, success of e-Governance initiatives in these countries is largely dependent on the financial sustainability of the telecenters. Technology for delivery of e-Government services is gradually shifting from PC-based model to the mobile-based model. Using exploratory research methodology in context of Common Service Centers in India, this paper examines the impact of this technology shift and aims to understand the issues pertaining to financial sustainability of telecentres as mobile adoption increases. Our research suggest that it will be difficult for the CSCs to be sustainable in the future and we recommend that government should take steps towards helping the key telecenters stakeholders develop new capabilities and skills for a new role in the changing environment to retain their relevance and sustainability in the future.
Dipankar Sengupta and Nagesh Shastri. Digital Payments through PFMS - Facilitating digital inclusion and accelerating transformation to a ‘Digital Economy’
Abstract: In his budget speech, the Finance Minister, stated that the year, 2011-12 would be a transition towards a more transparent and result oriented economic management system in India. The Government would take major steps in placing the administrative procedures concerning taxation, trade and tariffs and social transfers on electronic interface, free of discretion and bureaucratic delays. In furtherance of these objectives and in compliance with the provisions of the IT Act, along with other related laws and recommendations made by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Public Finance Management System (PFMS) established itself as a safe, secure, efficient and robust payment platform for the Government of India (GoI). The system enabled the successful delivery of payment services from Government Treasuries and Program Implementing Agencies (PIA) into beneficiaries’ accounts with the capability that the executive, legislature, internal and external audit, and the citizen access all financial transactions pertaining to government expenditures. The system has expedited direct payments from paying units to citizens, government employees, contractors and other entities receiving payments, in facilitating paperless transaction in a secure environment, reducing overall cost and promoting green banking. The digitally signed e-pay orders are processed by the accredited banks to credit the beneficiary accounts through a bouquet of electronic payment instruments viz. ICBS (Intra Core Banking Solution) / NEFT (National Electronic Fund Transfer) / RTGS (Real Time Gross Settlement), AEPS (Aadhaar Enabled Payment System), NACH (National Automated Clearing House), etc. The Ministry of Finance has taken a big leap forward, with PFMS poised to develop as one of the largest financial management systems in the world, which would be critical in bringing about transformational accountability and transparency in financial management, promoting good governance.
Irene Azogu, Alexander Norta, Dirk Draheim and Ingrid Pappel. A Framework for the Adoption of Blockchain Technology in Healthcare Information Management Systems A Case Study of Nigeria
Abstract: The role of record-keeping and information sharing in the health sector cannot be overemphasized. More recently, there has been renewed interest in finding a solution to the issues pertaining to privacy of health records and how these records can be easily accessed by different healthcare providers in healthcare service delivery. Additionally, easy access to a patient’s health information is an important aspect of health service delivery, which should be regulated and monitored because of the sensitivity of the information. Current approaches adopted in many hospitals face challenges of missing files or records, insecure records, and also inaccessibility to patients’ health information by healthcare providers that are needed to make informed health decisions. In this paper, we propose a scalable framework that seeks to justify the adoption and recommendation of blockchain technology to address the issues of privacy, information sharing and record-keeping in the health sector. The paper uses case study research methodology and employs interviews and document review as methods of data collection.
Asaf Dori. Cyber Security and governance: Exploring theoretical and practical challenges
Abstract: Effectively managing cyber security (CS) is a significant challenge for governments and businesses as technological advancements accelerate as well as the growing interconnectedness of the global economy. Reports of data breaches and sabotage appear to be escalating as more stakeholders are exposed to cyber-risks, exposing regulatory gaps and governance failures. Notwithstanding the significant interest directed towards government strategies and board level governance of CS witnessed over the past decade, significant uncertainty remains about how CS can be effectively governed in theory and practice. To address this uncertainty, the overarching aim of this research is to develop a deeper understanding about how CS governance is experienced and constituted in practice. Much of the research to date has been based on large-scale industry surveys that are limited in terms of providing insights into context. In this paper, an overview of the research design is provided, and specifically the findings from phase one, stage one of the research is reported on involving the potential of a socio-spatial perspective. The goal is to identify the research imperatives for the next stage of the research into cybersecurity governance.
Ajay Adala. Convergence of Technology, Governance and Public Policy towards Sustainable Development: CRIG Framework
Abstract: Technology, Governance and Public Policy are known to exist in some form or the other, though not as advanced as they are today. Technology, which was largely concentrated to research and manufacturing sectors earlier, is now being commonly used and well understood. Governance, which is a well-defined subject, is now being redefined to include citizen-centricity and user-friendliness. Public Policy, which always was an integral part of Government, is now being supported by new thinking and innovative analysis. Seldom these three areas viz., Technology, Governance and Public Policy work in tandem, which calls for the need to converge them with an aim to achieve sustainable development. Implementation of e-Governance projects is one such strategy. However, e-Governance is not an end by itself. The need is to form collaborative unions between Technology, Governance and Public Policy arises which would create a welfare state and subsequently guide towards sustainable development. An attempt has been made in this direction to form collaborative unions, identify their objectives and how these objectives will help in creating a welfare state and achieving sustainable development. A framework has been designed which may help in better visualization and understanding of proposed convergence,.
Aki Nagano. Thinking About Industrial Revolutions in Systems Theory - Moving Towards the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Abstract: A sense of stagnation has been spreading over globally, causing political frictions, discrimination, poverty, gender issues, economic disparity, and so on. It is important for the government, politicians, policymakers, and researchers to show positive visions for our society. The fourth industrial revolution could be useful for this. This study addresses how our society emerges from stagnation and co-evolves with the fourth industrial revolution by analyzing the transformation and adaptation mechanisms of the past industrial revolutions. The method applied in this paper is systems theory, which consists of world system and innovation system. Results show that the past industrial revolutions occurred from a desire to struggle for hegemony and through the enforcement of technological innovation. For dealing with the globalization and collective security, the world system tends to be a multipolar system. This indicates that regional leadership will create geo-politically limited supremacy. Conversely, the innovation system requires a strong desire to generate a self-organizing system. This study suggests that good financial and educational investments promote qualified innovation ecosystems. Both will contribute to developing the adaptive system for the fourth industrial revolution through generating dynamic forces to stimulate self-organizing functions within the social system.
Morten Meyerhoff Nielsen. Tackling identity management, service delivery, and social security challenges: technology trends and partnership models
Abstract: Today, 1.1 billion people have no formal identity. A full 50% of the world population does not have access to social security. At the same time, the number of 60+ year-olds will double to 2 billion by 2050, and the high levels of youth unemployment will limit the funds available for public services. Technology-driven efficiency and effectiveness in service production and delivery is part of the solution to these challenges and the Sustainable Development Goals. Secure and reliable identity management is a key enabler in the digital transformation of public service delivery, but many countries still battle. This paper highlights a number of technology trends in electronic identity management and partnership models for efficient and effective service delivery. The paper finds that digital identity and signature can provide cost-efficient, easy, secure, and personal service access. While there are strengths and weaknesses to all technical solution, technology is secondary when compared to the completeness, reliability, and quality of data. The cooperation between authorities facilitates efficient and effective identity management, and partnerships with the banking and telecom sectors for development, maintenance, and rollout can be especially beneficial.
Toomas Kästik. The Impact of Digital Governance on the Business Environment: the Case of Estonian Tax and Customs Board.
Abstract: Digital governance offers tools for reducing transaction costs and compliance costs in the relations among public, private and third sector as well as relations between individuals and government institutions. This research explores the effects of the digital services of Estonian Tax and Customs Board on enterprises who act as axis of influence of the Estonian economy. It also investigated improvements and developments expected by the enterprises in order to raise efficiency by reducing the administrative burden. Furthermore, the paper surveyed the attitude of enterprises towards implementing the instruments of so-called real time economy in taxation.
The theoretical framework of the paper based on the institutional economics with the main emphasis to the theory of transaction costs. The concept of transaction costs relates directly to the compliance costs of taxation deriving from complying with laws and tax regulations.
The empirical part of the paper, which focuses on the four most used digital services of Estonian Tax and Customs Board as well as on concept of implementation of the real time economy, is built up on using the mixed method approach, the combination of surveys and interviews throughout all the stages of the research.
The results of analysis indicate that usage of digital governance has a remarkable effect on raising the efficiency of enterprises by lessening the administrative burdens. The implementation of real time economy in taxation has a great potential to deliver positive outcomes. Attention has to be drawn to the inclusion, informing and attracting the significant actors and stakeholders, when implementing the real time economy.
Edgar Alejandro Ruvalcaba-Gomez and Cesar Renteria. Contrasting the perceptions about Citizen Participation between Organized Civil Society and Government with an Open Government approach: the case of the State of Jalisco, Mexico
Abstract: Politicians, public officials and civil society are increasingly using the concept of Citizen Participation. Citizen participation is a topic of debate about its relevance and implementation mechanisms. On the other hand, citizen participation is a core part of the idea of Open Government as an element that configures a novel public management strategy. Open Government strategies are being assumed by governments at different levels of government, but also by civil society organizations that are involved in issues of citizen participation. However, there is a diversity about how the concept is used by different social sectors. In this sense, it is pertinent to know how this concept is perceived among the main sectors that trigger citizen participation. It is important to know these perceptions because the dispersion of the concept entails a gap between the aspirations, expectations and objectives of public policies that promote citizen participation. The objective of this research is to analyse citizen participation from the perspectives of two fundamental sectors in the political-social participation process: Civil Society Organizations (CSO) and Government. To contrast the perspectives of the two sectors, the case of the State of Jalisco, Mexico is studied. This research shows the results of a survey administrated to civil society organizations and public officials involved in open government actions. In order to contrast ideas and assessments, two dimensions are established for its analysis: a) open government, and b) citizen participation. The results show a considerable gap between the perceptions of public officials and organized civil society.
Harish Kumar, A B Sagar, Gagan Deep and Kavita Rani. A Pathbreaking E-Governance Model for Public Grievance Redressal: A Case Study of SWAGAT
Abstract: E-Governance harnesses the potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to take cognizance of Sincere, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent (SMART) governance in various functions of government. Gujarat state of India is among top three states in the country for its highest number of electronic transaction penetrations and this state has out-set many e-Governance projects in the field of Public Distribution System, Land Records, Commercial Taxes, Agriculture, Transport, e-District, Common Service Centre at village level & many more like these in the form of Government to Citizen (G2C), Government to Government (G2G) and Government to Business (G2B) services.
One of such innovative e-governance model with perfect amalgamation of G2C and G2G services has been initiated by Chief Minister’s Office under Government of Gujarat (GoG) with the name “State Wide Attention on Grievances by Application of Technology (SWAGAT)” and found to be highly successful with its unparalleled capability to bring transparency, accountability and effectiveness in time bound grievance redressal mechanism of the government for every citizen of the state. This single system is self-reliant to superimpose its shadow of good governance on all the running G2C, G2G and G2B services in the state.
This case based research paper has used the qualitative research methodology with primary and secondary data analysis to unveil the government’s vision for excellence in e-governance via key initiative like SWAGAT and its critical analysis for success in effective and efficient citizen empowerment and enduring to the successful implementation of good governance in the state.
Mohamed H. Farah and Alvedi Sabani. Towards Sustainable Development Goals: A Literature Review and a Conceptual Framework of Governance Issues in Africa
Abstract: This paper presents a systematic literature review of governance issues in Africa. The study focuses on the evaluation of governance for sustainable development. This study contributes to the interdisciplinary research of governance. The study finds that governance can be activated by learning from the interdisciplinary vanguard. Additionally, this study proposes a working definition of governance as an active and sustainable process where governance functions as an ambidextrous steering mechanism. From the practical perspective, the paper proposes a conceptual framework to better understand the impact of key issues and challenges on African governments’ capacity to coordinate governance decision making. Furthermore, the recommendations of this research would assist policymakers in Africa to better address governance challenges and work towards achieving the United Nations 2030 agenda for sustainable development goals and the development of e-governance in the future.
Athreya Mukunthan and Govinda Agarwal. JAM: A Digital, Economic & Social Revolution
Abstract: In the 21st century, digitalization and data are radically revamping the government-citizen connect globally. To harness this immense power, India initiated the “Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile” or “JAM” model which aimed at redefining the manner in which Government benefits reach the common man. Leakages from the system, identification of beneficiaries in such a vast and diverse country, corruption and the last mile recipients not receiving their due from the government were major challenges Indian governance faced for several decades. This paper details the Indian experience of countering these problems using technology, digitalisation and the power of financial inclusion. The paper explores the history and background in which the JAM revolution was unleashed and the impact and challenges during implementation.

The process was three prong. First, the unbanked were brought under the formal banking net with a large-scale free-of-cost bank account opening scheme titled Prime Minister Jan Dhan Yojna (PMJDY). Second, every resident was given a biometric-coded unique identification called the Aadhaar card. Lastly, given that mobile phones have become a primary tool for communication, it was linked to their bank accounts and Aadhaar numbers, to directly deliver government subsidies and benefits into the accounts of the people electronically. This cut out the middlemen, reduced leakages and resulted in savings of Rs. 17,000 crore for the government annually. This initiative was a big social revolution at the micro level. More than 30 crore bank accounts were opened and more than 50% of them were in the name of women. Analysis reveal that this initiative reduced gender inequality and income-based disparities in the banking sector in the nation.

The paper also identifies some challenges JAM faces such as lack of large-scale digital and physical infrastructure, digital illiteracy, rural-urban internet penetration divide and some structural issues the Indian system faces. Possible solutions and way forward has also been explored. In a nutshell, the paper dwells into the past, present and future of the digital revolution that JAM brought upon in India, its impact on the government and the society at large, the challenges it faces and what the future entails.
Ajay Dutta, Prof. M. Syamala Devi and Dr. Manish Arora. Design of UID based Online Census System for Electronic Governance Applications
Abstract: Census is the citizen socio-economic data collection process for the preparation of the citizen database. e-Governance refers to the delivery of State and Central Government information and services using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to citizens, businesses and Government departments. In the paper, Unique Identification based e-Census system is proposed. Based on existing census system in India, various modules of the proposed e-Census system are designed such as online data capturing, integrating census system with Aadhar database, census data monitoring and utilization of online census database for various e-Governance applications. Relevant user interfaces are also designed for the system. The proposed system has many advantages including a dynamic updating of birth and death records, utilization of e-Census data for the next census in addition to reducing the manual intervention. It is demonstrated that e-Census data can be utilized more effectively for various decision-making applications such as opening educational institutions and granting unemployment allowance. This is possible as online census data is linked to Government organizations through web services and all the required data is available online. It is concluded that the online census system not only can replace the manual system but also can allow efficient and effective e-Governance.
Abstract: As the desire for personalized interactions with government increases, agencies and departments are exploring efforts to better deliver citizen- and business-focused digital government. In recent years, government initiatives have helped agencies make substantial strides in improving citizen experiences of local government. The intention of this paper is to discuss the challenges that the EThekwini Metro is experiencing in translating its engagement with its citizens digitally. This qualitative study collected its data through interviews with ordinary citizens living in the metro and its environs. It also conducted key-informant interviews with selected municipal officials on the subject. Thirty interviews were conducted, two-thirds with ordinary citizens and a third with senior municipal functionaries. The study found that there was a low priority within the metro that is given towards e-government due to a lack of political will at the IT department to offer services digitally.
Moreover, it also found that citizens generally did not make great use of e-government services mainly because of limited access to the internet, coupled with low levels digital knowledge. Additionally, the study found that even though there are elements of digital services, only those citizens that could afford data could enjoy digital services. This study shows that citizens who cannot afford data are excluded from municipal e-services. Since the metro is unable to provide free data or WIFI to citizens, it has limited capacity to increase citizen participation. The quantitative data was used to collect demographic data.

This article argues the metro must make internet access possible for all citizens irrespective of their socio-economic conditions to improve citizens’ experience of government services as envisioned in the government’s citizens services charter. The study recommends that data must be made affordable and the metro’s political and administrative leadership must act with urgency in making this possible for citizens.
Alvedi Sabani, Hepu Deng and Vinh Thai. Evaluating the Performance of E-Government in Indonesia: A Thematic Analysis
Abstract: This paper evaluates the performance of e-government from the viewpoint of citizens in Indonesia. Six critical perspectives including availability, efficiency, information security, information quality, service functionality and transparency are adopted for investigating the performance of e-government in Indonesia. The study reveals that the overall performance of e-government in Indonesia is unsatisfactory. Such unsatisfactory performance is mainly due to the low-level of availability, the substandard quality of information, the unreliability of e-government services, and the vulnerability on the information security. From the practical perspective, this research provides the Indonesian government and public organizations with relevant suggestions on how the performance of e-government can be improved. Such suggestions can lead to the formulation of better strategies and policies for the continuous development of e-government in Indonesia.
Rosa Angelica Sanchez Tortolero, Jean Carlo Marquez Gonzalez and Guy Alberto Vernaez. Participation and Citizen Empowerment platform for e-governance: Communal Integration System (SINCO)
Abstract: The Governance concept reaches an important place in the theoretical debates and political practices because it introduces new forms on policy formulation and managing, making it possible to redefine the way of participation and new proposals to overcome bureaucratic barriers of the representative democracy. The main challenge is to generate more cooperative relations between government and society. Through the implementation of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), we can generate new ways to establish e-governance, which can draw new possibilities to achieve substantive forms of participation. This is the purpose of the Communal Integration System (SINCO by its acronym in spanish) which started operating in 2104 and works as a communication bridge between the institution and citizens organized in communities. It was initially developed as a tool for information management, but the platform subsequently evolved as a direct communication system due to the dynamics and demands of the users, which complies with the principles of transparency, co-responsibility and accountability. In this transformation, the development of the system adopted the Citizen-Centered Design, to generate an appropriation and empowerment of the tool. Through a literacy review and the presentation of the methodology and results of the usability research[febres], this paper analyses the limits and possibilities of SINCO as a platform for participation and citizen empowerment that can generate the conditions forestablishing e-governance in accordance to the community’s needs.
Deepak Bhatia, Klaus Tilmes and Saurabh Agarwal. Yet Another Digital Disruption Assimilation Index as driver for growth and shared prosperity?
Abstract: While there are significant efforts ongoing globally towards social and sustainable development and towards the well-being and upliftment of less privileged people, substantial challenges remain. Economic inequalities still persist, and simultaneously, there are growing concerns about new age problems such as climate change and data privacy. The promise of the future lies in the successful implementation of new-age technologies that are revolutionizing all aspects of life. It is in this regard that this research on a “Digital Disruption Assimilation Index” (DDAI) looks to initiate a capacity building tool that can be leveraged by nations to understand where they stand in the appropriate adoption of disruptive technologies and steps they can take to improve their ranking. This development index could provide the impetus for capacity/capability building by countries towards adopting the latest digital/ disruptive/smart technologies for economic as well as social growth and prosperity. The index considers readiness as well as the adoption of disruptive technologies (such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, etc.) vis a vis the Sustainable Development Goals. The research is still in progress and will eventually result in a country-wise ranking that would enable the country with international partners such as the World Bank to ‘build’ the foundations for technology-led economies, ‘boost’ capacity to face technological disruption, and ‘broker’ strategic partnerships linked to development challenges and economic opportunities.
Saidarshan Bhagat and Padmaja Joshi. Evaluation of Accessibility and Accessibility Audit Methods for e-Governance Portals
Abstract: Success of a service lies in its usage and it's accessibility is extremely vital to increase the reach of a service. This paper covers a study of all-inclusiveness of some of the online services provided by the government of India. In addition to finding out the coverage of the online service to all types of users, the work also focuses on the adequacy of methods of accessibility verification and recommends the appropriate testing. In this paper, the solutions and recommendations are also given to make online services more accessible. The study has also helped to evolve the research areas to overcome accessibility concerns mainly related to security.
Seemantinee Sengupta, Deepak Misra, Marut Chaudhary and Omprakash Aggarwal. Role of Technology in Success of Rural Sanitation Revolution in India
Abstract: Swachh Bharat Mission – Gramin (SBM-G), translated in English as Clean India Mission - Rural, is a nation-wide campaign in India that aims to achieve universal sanitation coverage by October 02, 2019. Launched by Prime Minister of India on October 02, 2014, this programme is being implemented by the state governments under financial assistance and technical support of Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MDWS), Government of India, which is the nodal agency for its implementation.

SBM-G is one of the largest behaviour change programme in the world, and the evidence shows it is on track to achieve its objectives. Sanitation coverage in rural India has increased from less than 40 per cent in 2014 to over 94 per cent by the end of fourth year of the programme, as more than 500 million people have adopted safe sanitation and given up open defecation.

Political will and leadership, and the strategy to emphasise on sustainability, differentiated SBM-G from previous sanitation programmes in India. An equally important contributor to the success of the programme, has been the effective use of technology during its various stages of implementation. Execution of the programme has been monitored and evaluated through a web based e-Governance solution ( Up to date information about 157 million beneficiaries and status of their household toilet facilities made available by the SBM-G database, formed the foundation that enabled all participating stakeholders to monitor and evaluate the progress in an efficient, effective and transparent manner. Social media and digital technologies have also been innovatively utilized in creating a mass cleanliness movement by engaging citizens, disseminating information, and organizing and managing all field level activities.

This experience paper describes how ICT was used to support the implementation of SBM-G. It also attempts to highlight key lessons in use of technology for other similar programmes, globally.
Ganesh Khadanga, Kabita Roy Das, Prashant Kumar Mittal and Deepak Chandra Misra. Urban amenities in Rural Areas – National Rurban Mission (NRuM)
Abstract: National Rurban Mission (NRuM), Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) is implementing a comprehensive web based IT system (, with the help of NIC for effective management of implementation and operations of NRuM. It ensures organized development of the clusters through Integrated Cluster Action Plans (ICAPs) and Detailed Project Reports (DPR). The mission aims to create 300 such 'Rurban Clusters' over the next 3 years, across the country with about 100 Rurban clusters approved every year. It is an attempt to make our rural areas socially, economically and physically sustainable regions. The Mission strives to strengthen rural areas by providing economic, social and infrastructure amenities, thus leading to sustainable and balanced regional development in the country. It will develop a cluster of villages that preserve and nurture the essence of rural community life with focus on equity, and inclusiveness, without compromising with the facilities perceived to be essentially urban in nature, thus creating a cluster of Rurban villages. The same will be achieved through the convergence with the existing scheme in States and the Critical Gap Funding (CFG) by central Government. The MIS facilitates in capturing the ICAP and DPR by States through States Nodal Agency (SNA) of different States. The State level executive Committee (SLEC) approves the ICAPs and DPRs. The MIS is developed in open source platform (PHP, Apache, PostgreSQL) with fully integrated workflow and is operational in 226 clusters. The system is also facilitated with geotagging of the works through Mobile Application and payments through the EAT (Expenditure, Advance and Transfer) module of PFMS (Public Financial Management System) and a web enable GIS System, using the WMS web services of NIC.
Gayatri P, Deepak Misra, Aditya Atluri and Radha Krishna K. Bhuseva: Digital Transformation in Land Administration towards better Citizen Services
Abstract: The focus on Citizen-Centric Governance has become the pivotal point of discussion in Indian e-Governance. Indian Government launched a series of Technology initiatives called Digital India initiatives that have picked up momentum across all the states in India. This paper shares one such initiative in the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP) with a vision to integrate all the siloed departments/institutions that deal with various kinds of land transactions into a Single Window Platform (SWP) called Land Hub or BhuSeva (meaning Land Services), which facilitates citizen to avail Integrated, Multi-departmental land services. There are several innovative steps taken in the approach to build this SWP. Using Enterprise Architecture (EA) to arrive at Solution Architecture, Assigning a unique identity number to a parcel of land or property are some among them. This paper shares our experience on how this innovative approach has helped to develop a sustainable platform for integration and interoperability of individual departments. And how certain challenges were addressed through defining critical success factors of this project. The SWP is currently operational.
Demetrios Sarantis, Soumaya Ben Dhaou, Charalampos Alexopoulos, Alexander Ronzhyn, Gabriela Viale Pereira and Yannis Charalabidis. The Evolving e-Governance Curriculum: A Worldwide mapping of Education Programs
Abstract: From the demand side, the need to build e-Governance capacities and expertise is increasing and requires more and more sophisticated knowledge and competencies to fulfil the stakeholders’ needs. The e-Governance profession and skills needs are also becoming more diverse and more specialized.
From the supply side, we can also witness a growing interest in the e-Governance learning and programs worldwide at different level. However the programs offered are often not well aligned adapting neither to the government’s, nor to the public service needs. The e-Governance curriculum is a key success factor to reduce the gap. It serves as a base of knowledge for a large number of graduates that participate in government digital transformation activities. Within academic and practitioners’ communities, there have been constant discussions about the content of the e-Governance curriculum.
The objective of this research is to identify and analyse the current situation in e-Governance training worldwide and provide a path forward for future e-Governance program relative curriculum development.
For this purpose, the authors applied a systematic secondary data review method to examine the existing e-Governance programs and draw an e-Governance education mapping worldwide. The research establishes the current baseline of e-Governance curricula and describes their fundamental aspects.
Information provided in this article should be valuable to the e-Governance educators and curriculum designers, as well as to the e-Governance practitioners, to better understand the foundational knowledge transmitted to e-Governance graduates.
Vijaya Uthaman and Dr.Vasanthagopal Ramankutty. Service Quality of e-Governance Services through Common Service Cetres (OSQ-CSC) in India: A Study Using Structural Equation Modeling
Abstract: Common service centres (CSCs) are corner ship project under National e-Governance Plan, 2006 of India. There are about 2.5 self sustaining network of CSCs. It is a Public Private Partnership model entrepreneurship framework, which acts as the front-end delivery points for G2C, G2B services in villages. The present study determines the overall service quality dimensions of e-Governance services through common service centres in India as perceived by beneficiaries of these centres. After a vast literature review and experts opinion, dimensions namely information quality, system quality-functionality, and five dimensions of service quality viz. reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangibility were selected for the study. As a result of exploratory factor analysis of 450 beneficiaries, the initial seven dimensions were reduced to five dimensions namely service process quality (combination of reliability, responsiveness, and assurance), information quality, system quality-functionality, tangibility and empathy with 29 items. Again, confirmatory factor analysis was performed to determine the reliability and validity of each latent variable. The structural equation modeling generated a good model fit for the research model. Thus in the final model, there were 23 items spread under five dimensions which contributed to the overall service quality of common service centres (OSQ-CSC). The study result showed that “empathy” is the major factor which affects the perception of overall service quality of common service centres followed by “service process quality”.
Jorge Prego, Jimena Hernández and Matías Jackson. Building a framework for Trust Services in Uruguay
Abstract: In the latest years, Uruguay has achieved a leadership position among governments providing digital and innovative services to citizens. The guiding framework is given by the Agenda Uruguay Digital 2020 which looks for improving security and accessibility to online services.
Since the enactment of Law No. 18.600 on September 21, 2009, and the establishment of the Electronic Certification Unit (UCE) and the implementation of the Public Key Infrastructure, use of the Advanced Electronic Signature in public and private acts and business transaction has increased steadily.
Although today there is an excellent availability of Certificates of Advanced Electronic Signature, there are factors that may hinder its massive adoption, such as the complexity of signing from a significant number of devices. The availability of new instruments brought by technological advances and the experience acquired in these years has shown some limitations presented by the current regulation.
One of these limitations is the scarcity of safe, comfortable and convenient identification systems. Until now, the Advanced Electronic Signature has been used as a means of electronic identification with great utility. However, in order to be identified electronically, certificates and signature keys are not the only possible elements; this process could be implemented safely with combinations of many technological elements, such as mobile phone applications, biometrics, digital keys with a variable key, among others.
The UCE identified the need to introduce Trust Services into the ecosystem. This required giving (i) recognition of the concept of Electronic Identification and (ii) provision of legal support for its equivalence to face-to-face identification by means of advanced electronic signature with centralized custody of keys, in order to provide legal security in the digital world.
Alexander Kosenkov, Ingrid Pappel and Dirk Draheim. On Existing Trends towards Creation of a Holistic Socio-technical Approach to e-Governance
Abstract: The modern world is actively changing through implementation of information-communication technologies (ICTs), almost all spheres of human activity are experiencing transformation under their impact. Still digitalization of governance and public administration, implementation of e-governance are challenging domains of transformation for multiple reasons, both from theoretical and practical perspectives. Nor multiple positive cases of e-governance implementation, nor huge budgets can ensure success in these spheres and the more researchers are trying to dig into the topic the more complex these spheres seem to become. In the last two decades e-governance researchers have created tremendous corpus of literature, which provides a reliable basis for outlining holistic and universal approach to e-governance that is in such a high demand today. In this paper we would like to basically describe our vision of such an approach that could order existing taxonomical, conceptual and ontological developments and methodological problems in e-governance field. In perspective this approach can be used as a reliable basis for theoretical and practical developments in e-governance and public administration digitalization.
Amal Benrjab and Sehl Mellouli. Artificial Intelligence in Smart Cities: Systematic Literature Network Analysis
Abstract: The adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) has recently gained
increasing attention in the smart cities context. Given the
relevance of this topic, the aim of this paper is to conduct a
literature review to investigate the role of AI in the different
sectors of smart cities. The methodology used in this study
combines the systematic literature review in order to identify the
most relevant studies, and the citation network analysis to unfold
the dynamics of the field under study. The results of this research
show not only the importance of this technology that plays a key
role in several applications within a smart city but also the
challenges that it brings to cities and to citizens.
Meelis Kitsing. Future of Digital Governance: Scenario Planning Approach
Abstract: Most academic literature on digital governance focuses on longer or short-term historical developments. This research will explore potential future developments in Estonia by using the scenario planning approach. As the future is uncertain, then development of wide range of scenarios carries greater relevance than relying on one vision or forecast. Estonia is particularly crucial case as its developments in digital governance have received considerable attention in scholarly and policy circles around the world. The paper starts by reviewing academic literature on both public sector governance as well on digital governance in order to reveal potential key drivers for the scenario planning exercise. Expert-based workshops consisting scholars and experts in the areas of public sector governance as well as computer science developed five alternative scenarios of digital governance in the spring of 2019. The key drivers of scenarios are the nature of budget constraint, the degree of centralization of decision-making and emphasis on either on calculative and analytical or the expedited decision-making processes. The evaluation of current executive branch public sector reform agenda as well as the draft bill of special parliamentary committee for state reform suggest that the current approach to digital governance matches best with scenario “Ad Hoc Governance” and partially with scenarios of “Night-watchman State” and “Entrepreneurial State”. However, there is almost no overlap with scenarios “Caretaker State” and “Networked Governance”. This reveals that the trend is towards centralization of digital governance in Estonia while academic literature and evolution of digital governance in Estonia would suggest the primacy of more decentralized networked governance.
Oleksii Konashevych and Marta Poblet. Blockchain Anchoring of Public Registries: Options and Challenges
Abstract: Governments across the world are testing different uses of the blockchain for the delivery of their public services. Blockchain hashing—or the insertion of data in the blockchain (anchoring)—is one of the potential applications of the blockchain in this space. With this method, users can apply special scripts to add their data to blockchain transactions, ensuring both immutability and publicity. Blockchain hashing also secures the integrity of the original data stored on central governmental databases. This paper starts by analysing possible scenarios of hashing on the blockchain and assesses in which cases it may work and in which it is less likely to add value to a public administration. Second, the paper also compares this method with traditional digital signatures using PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) and discusses standardisation in each domain. Third, it also addresses issues related with concepts such as “distributed ledger technology” and “permissioned blockchains.” Finally, it raises the question of whether blockchain hashing is an effective solution for electronic governance, and concludes that its value is controversial, even if it is improved by PKI and other security measures. In this regard, we claim that governments need to identify pain points in governance in the first place, and then consider the trade-offs of the blockchain as a potential solution versus other alternatives.
Yumei Chen, Yingxin Huang, Kangchen Li and Luis F. Luna-Reyes. Dimensions and Measurement of City Resilience in Theory and in Practice
Abstract: Current trends on urbanization and concerns on the frequency of natural disasters have promoted increased interest in the concept of City Resilience among Smart City scholars and other researchers in Urban Studies. Cities with strong resilience have a strong ability to adapt to disturbances. A key research issue involves the development of frameworks to better understand and measure the levels of resilience in a city. This article explores the dimensions and measurement of city resilience. Using the multiple cases study method and qualitative research, we identify main topics in the plans of these three cities, comparing them to the main domain categories identified in the city resilience literature: social resilience, economic resilience, community capital, institutional resilience, infrastructure resilience and environmental resilience. Our findings suggest some similarities and differences between practice and theory. First, infrastructure and institutional resilience are generally considered as the most popular indicator. Second, every dimension of resiliency includes several sub-dimensions in the resilience framework, but some sub-dimensions are not mentioned in the resilience plans of the three cities identified as case studies. Thirdly, the practice of these cities shows that in social resilience, the decision-makers should pay more attention to education and equity, public health services and social services and well-being, then in economic resilience, we should emphasize economic diversity, employment and economic recovery. A revised resilient city measurement model is suggested in the end of the paper.
Abstract: This study investigated access and usage of mobile phones by postgraduate students. Mobile phone technology has greatly contributed to the quick access and sharing of information in the contemporary world. However, the issue of integrity in the usage of mobile phone remains a paradox. The data was collected using a questionnaire that was administered to 165 post graduate students in the Schools of Education and Business. The respondents were randomly sampled. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. The results indicated that mobile phone usage for information sharing and research is very high. All the students sampled used mobile phones to access, share, and search information since all of them had smart phones. It was noted that the University lacked a policy on use of mobile phones to access and read educational materials. Interestingly, it was noted that mobile phone is a handy technology for most examination malpractices and dishonesty. The study highly recommends policy issues on usage of mobile technology by students particularly in enhancing learning and information sharing as well as maintaining sanctity of examinations and individual student integrity.
Muhammad Priandi, Walter Fernandez and M.S. Sandeep. The Role of Context in IS Research: A Review of E-government Research in Developing Economies
Abstract: In this paper, we respond to recent calls for more attention to context in information systems (IS) research. We argue that considering context is of crucial importance when researching IS implementations in developing economies, especially those involving e-government implementations. Using a thematic literature review, we identify four properties of context which have been referenced in research of e-government implementations in developing economies. The paper joins previous calls for increased context-awareness in IS research by drawing attention to the merit of emphasizing properties of context. Future e-government research should consider pursuing discovery of more context-specific mechanisms from developing economies setting, which will enrich the understanding of implementation of information and communication technology for development (ICT4D).
Rachel Fischer and Beverley Malan. The Development of the Digital Wellness Toolkit
Abstract: The advent of Information and Communication Technologies have brought with it numerous advantages and disadvantages. One area of concern relates to wellbeing in a digital environment: issues regarding cyber safety and cyber safety, although prevalent, are not frequently addressed in school curricula in South Africa. The African Centre of Excellence for Information Ethics (ACEIE) contributed to the existing tertiary curriculum on Information Ethics at the Information Science Department, University of Pretoria. Faced by a lack of training material for schools and communities on cyber safety and security, and drawing from its experience in the tertiary environment, the ACEIE developed the Digital Wellness Toolkit. This toolkit, developed in collaboration with INTEL Education, UNESCO and the South African government, seeks to address this gap on four levels: pre-primary age; primary school; secondary school and local community training. In so doing, the role of the South African government is underscored, since by creating and disseminating training programmes on the ethics of emerging technologies, it realises its responsibility towards eGovernance. This paper provides an overview of the history of the development of the Digital Wellness Toolkit together with a discussion of the theoretical and methodological approaches to the design of the various Digital Wellness curricula which form part of the toolkit.
Paul Henman and Timothy Graham. Towards a taxonomy of government webportals: an international comparison of portal hyperlink networks
Abstract: Government web portals are central to governments’ web strategy, yet their rationale, design and effectiveness is scarcely studied. This paper comparatively examines the hyperlink structure of the government web portals of Australia, Canada, France, UK and USA. Websites are conceptualized as operating within web and informational ecologies in which governments seek to position their portal at the center. This paper investigates the different ways governments approach this task by analyzing the various sizes and shapes of the portal in terms of webpages and hyperlinks, and the makeup of webpages externally linked from the portal. This research highlights different design approaches between information repository portals and referral portals, as well as considerable differences in the presence of social media platforms for the operation of online government, revealing an interactive webportal design. The paper provides the basis for future portal research and assessment of the effectiveness of different portal designs.
Alemayehu Tsegaye and Lemma Lessa. Evaluation of the Public Value of E-Government Services in Ethiopia: Case of Court Case Management System
Abstract: Electronic government (e-government) refers to the use of information and communication technologies to help public organizations more accessible, productive, responsive and responsible. Extant studies confirmed that organizations granted trust and goodwill from the public or the customer through the e-government services delivery seeing that the public value is settled. However, research conducted in this area focused on the initiatives, sustainability, and success of the e-government project. Although the public value of e-government services is the emerging concept and it requires adequate research, in the knowledge of the researcher, there is no research conducted in Ethiopia. The objective of this study is to evaluate the public value of e-government services and to identify challenges associated with it. Specifically, it aims to identify the evaluation framework from extant literature, perceive the status of e-Government services public value, find the challenges associated with meeting the public value of the e-government services in Federal Supreme Court and forward possible recommendations to address challenges associated with e-government services in attaining public value. To achieve these objectives, both qualitative and quantitative methodologies were employed on survey data. Both quantitative and qualitative findings were triangulated for better investigating the public value of e-government services. The revised framework consists of three main dimensions: (i) delivery of quality public services, (ii) the effectiveness of public organizations, and (iii) achievement of socially desirable outcomes were applied for evaluation. The response from 35.77% respondents confirms that quality public service delivery achievement but 64.23% disregarded. The answer from 33% participants revealed that the public organization is effective despite 77% respondents not accepted. The reaction from 25% participant assured that socially desirable outcome is achieved through e-government services while 75% said not. In general, 31.25% respondents agreed on public value of e-government services achievement whereas the rest 68.75% said it is not achieved. This leads to the development of some specific recommendation for improving the public value of e-government in FSC. The study has a contribution to the e-government services public value research domain from both the theoretical and practical perspectives. From the theoretical perspective, it demonstrates the applicability of the concept of public value for evaluating the performance of e-government. From the practical perspective, it presents an investigation of the public value of e-government. Such an investigation provides the stakeholders with a realistic assessment of the overall performance of e-government in FSC. It helps to the development of some specific recommendations for enhancing and improving the public value of e-government. Such findings are not only significant for the continuous development of e-government services in FSC but also for meeting the expectation and demand of the customers.
G. Anthony Giannoumis, Sveinung Legard, Sissel Hovik and Cristina Paupini. Design and Use of New Media in Urban Development Processes
Abstract: This on-going research paper reports initial evidence gathered as part of the Democratic Urban Development in the Digital Age (DEMUDIG) project, which aims to investigate citizens' use of the internet and new media as channels for participation in urban development processes, with a focus on city governments' efforts to promote and make use of citizen initiatives through such channels. This on-going research paper focuses specifically on the new media platforms used to establish interactive dialogues with local communities. Preliminary results show that Oslo, Melbourne, and Madrid have used new media platforms for engaging public participation in a variety of urban development processes. Local districts in Oslo have begun to experiment with using social networking sites in conjunction with more traditional forms of digital communication such as email and SMS. In contrast, Melbourne has adopted Your City Your Voice, where citizens can engage with local government through surveys. Finally, the Decide Madrid platform has allowed citizens to directly impact area-based initiatives in the city and local districts of Madrid. The results additionally indicate that Oslo has relied to a greater extent than Melbourne or Madrid on mainstream new media platforms – i.e., Facebook.
Muktikam Hazarika and Joya Chakraborty. Women in Local E-Governance: A Case Study of Assam
Abstract: Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are understood to have distinctive social consequences. It is one of the most powerful forces that shape twenty-first century. Considering the huge prospective of ICTs in a knowledge society, a recent trend particularly in case of developing countries like India is that the governments are attempting to provide internet access and improving online infrastructure for the citizens. However, a wide range of literature goes on to suggest that the poorest and disadvantaged communities in the world include the women folk and that there is a certain and clear existence of ‘gender divide’ in the ICT arena. This doctoral research paper tries to describe the researcher’s ongoing qualitative research work in Assam- a state in India, concerning the access and use of ICTs by grassroots women government functionaries, particularly those holding institutional positions at the local governance level; their issues and challenges in using ICTs and their perceptions about employing ICTs towards social change. The current paper highlights the impressions of the researcher from the qualitative field work that is being carried out in four (04) districts of Assam. This paper also attempts to put forward a critical commentary purely from a gendered lens on the existing gap in ICT policy framework in India keeping in backdrop the Digital India programme launched by the Government of India in 2015.
Charalampos Alexopoulos, Gabriela Viale Pereira, Yannis Charalabidis and Lorenzo Madrid. A Taxonomy of Smart Cities Initiatives
Abstract: Governments are required by the increasing urbanisation to provide new and innovative services. Information and Communication Technologies have emerged as key drivers in the redefinition of the city mechanism and its relationship with citizens. In the newest paradigms, cities constitute an environment for implementing innovative actions and promoting the contribution of many stakeholders. Several studies analyse the "smart city" as an ecosystem based on the triple helix model while recently, research has suggested the quadruple helix model in which community works alongside with business, research and government in the new economy. The aim of this study is to review the smart cities concept, to map the implemented initiatives and to propose a living taxonomy of smart cities developments. The suggested taxonomy consists of ten primary areas and 85 developments. This framework is a first attempt to introduce the concept of open citizen and apply in practice the quadruple helix approach in order to engage multi-stakeholders on the definition of smart cities.
Novy N.R.A. Mokobombang, Jairo Gutierrez and Krassie Petrova. The benefits of Open Government Data Use: A Cross-Country Comparison
Abstract: Data that produced by government is enormous important since all data provide information not only to run governance tasks related to internal processes but also to combine the public datasets with private organisation data to create new sources of value. Therefore, most countries have implemented Open Government Data (OGD) to unlock the potential value of public data. This research examined five studies in four countries to undertake a systematic review of the literature to identify where the most benefits of OGD resulted. Six processes had been applied from defining the topic to writing a result adopted from Machi. The result does not conclude a complete overview of all OGDs performance to deliver benefits. Instead, it will outline the study of categorised benefits based on OGD actor’s perspectives by concerning how each government agency created regulations to adopt OGD with different historical policies and prominent obstacles. Based on the results from the analysis, three categories of benefits, namely 1) technical and operation, 2) economic, and 3) political and societal benefits represent the value of innovation, economy and social benefits. This study gives a practical insight to government agencies on how to build innovation to create, deliver and capture OGD sustainable value.
Fernando Kleiman. Engaging Governments in Open Data Policies through Gaming
Abstract: Open data can be used to increase the transparency and accountability of governments. Yet, opening of data is still limited. One important reason originates from the limited willingness of public servants to open data. The typical risk-averse environment of the public sector has the prevalence of a culture emphasizing the barriers of open data over its advantages. Furthermore, issues like the unclear trade-offs between public values, the fear of violating privacy, lack of knowledge of possible measures to avoid (or reduce) risks results in lower willingness to open data. The main problem addressed by this research is how to change bureaucrat’s willingness to open more data by developing and testing a mobile digital game. The game will be based on causal mechanisms, which are hypothesized cause-effect relationships that can result in higher levels of willingness to open data. An interactive simulated and safe environment (game) will allow civil servants to experience new open-data routines and should result in the behavioral change.
Irfanullah Arfeen and Adil Ali Shah. E-Health in IDPs Health Projects in Pakistan
Abstract: Almost all the developed countries have adopted E-health system and Pakistan is also one of these countries where E-health is now being partially implemented. In addition to this implementation the need of the day is to implement E-health in Health Projects such as Internally Displaced People (IDP) Camps to make the projects even more successful and result oriented. Not many studies have been conducted to find the rationale behind E-Health system not being adopted in IDPs Health Projects in Pakistan. This research is an attempt to fill the gap and identify the challenges due to which E-health is not yet adopted in Health Projects. The data gathered through the questionnaire was then structured and regression analysis with significant test was conducted to identify the factors that contribute in non implementation of E-health system in IDPs Health Projects. The result shows that the healthcare staffs are willing to adopt E-health system but due to lack of ICT at the Project Implementation Unit level such E-health system could not be implemented. Therefore in order to make Health Projects more successful using E-health system basic ICT facilities should be provided at Project Implementation Unit.
Lemma Lessa. Sustainability Framework for E-Government Success: Feasibility Assessment
Abstract: E-government improves and more importantly transforms the public sector. To take advantage of such benefits, developing countries have been investing a lot on e-government initiatives in spite of their limited budget. Sustaining successful e-government initiatives is of utmost importance especially for developing countries to let them attain what they aspire for in transforming government functions. Extant literature, however, show that there are only few success stories whereas majorities of those efforts end up in a failure. Literature also reveal that sustainability aspect of e-government initiatives is a neglected topic and calls to extend e-government research beyond success. The research tries to explore two concepts (e-government success and sustainability) in an integrated manner and is aimed at exploring the potential relationship between the two concepts. In order to achieve this objective, the research was conducted in two steps. First, a conceptual framework is proposed based on a multiple exploratory case study based on four G2G cases selected from rural areas in Ethiopia. Second, feasibility of the proposed conceptual framework is assessed in another related setting.
Focusing on the second step of the research, this paper looks at a G2C Court Case Management System (CCMS) at Federal Supreme Court of Ethiopia ( The CCMS has been in operation over a decade and transformed registrar business process by automating its record management from start to finish and facilitated citizen’s request for court information. It is credited for reducing delay in retrieving court information, simplifying the process, and reducing the potential for corruption. The findings elaborate on the potential of the initial conceptual framework for understanding success and sustainability of e-government initiatives by uncovering the relationship between the enablers of e-government success and sustainability. Building on the initial conceptual framework, this paper ultimately proposes a revised sustainability framework to guide understanding of the phenomenon in the ground. The outcome of the research is also of value for practitioners as a quality tool to assess success and sustainability aspect of e-government initiatives.
Majed Ayyad. Personalizing eGovernment with Distributed Ledger Technology
Abstract: eGovernments are mostly built around centralized systems, where intermediaries play significant role in building trustworthy transactions between government parties. Recent advances in Distributed Ledger Technologies such as blockchain and smart contracts are promoted for building disruptive eGovernment. By having a distributed trust and cutting out the middle party, eGov requires a shift in thinking about how government do business. The Government might need to release some of its power to citizens who generate and grant access to their sensitive data. In this paper, we focus on highlighting the eGovernment trust framework using permissioned blockchain technologies and explore the current challenges of its implementation
Todd Sanderson, Andrew Reeson and Paul Box. Optimizing Open Government: An Economic Perspective on Data Sharing
Abstract: Data has value helping individuals, businesses and government make decisions. Sharing government data can, therefore, enhance its value, providing privacy is safeguarded. Open government data can also enhance equity by reducing the information advantage that large businesses increasingly have over small competitors and customers. However, there are costs associated with open data. It must be curated and disseminated. Individual privacy must be protected, which may require aggregation or transformation. There are also different ways of sharing data. At its crudest, this may take the form of providing files, in whatever form, on a website. More usefully, data may be shared as spreadsheets with associated metadata, or through machine-readable APIs. Data services also help users draw insights from data, for example by identifying patterns or trends, or highlighting the most salient information. These different sharing models incur different costs to government, and to users. More accessible data generally reduces the costs to users but will come at some cost to the government. From an economic perspective, it will be more efficient if this is done once by the government. However, given limited resources it is worth considering which data should be prioritized for open sharing, and whether (and how) government should seek to recover its costs from users. A data prioritization index could assess the trade-offs between the costs and benefits of making particular datasets open. The benefits depend on the extent to which data are likely to be used by citizens, or to enhance competition among firms. The costs include the ICT infrastructure requirements and privacy safeguards needed to make the data open. Ultimately the value of open data will grow as artificial intelligence lowers the cost of drawing insights from it.
Maik Brinkmann and Moreen Heine. Can Blockchain Leverage for New Public Governance? – A Conceptual Analysis on Process Level
Abstract: New Public Governance (NPG) as a paradigm for collaborative forms of public service delivery and Blockchain governance are trending topics for researchers and practitioners alike. Thus far, each topic has, on the whole, been discussed separately. This paper presents the preliminary results of ongoing research which aims to shed light on the more concrete benefits of Blockchain for the purpose of NPG. For the first time, a conceptual analysis is conducted on process level to spot benefits and limitations of Blockchain-based governance. Per process element, Blockchain key characteristics are mapped to functional aspects of NPG from a governance perspective. The preliminary results show that Blockchain offers valuable support for governments seeking methods to effectively coordinate co-producing networks. However, the extent of benefits of Blockchain varies across the process elements. It becomes evident that there is a need for off-chain processes. It is, therefore, argued in favour of intensifying research on off-chain governance processes to better understand the implications for and influences on on-chain governance.
Prashant Kumar Mittal and Deepak Chandra Misra. e-Governance and Digitalization of Indian Rural Development
Abstract: In a developing country like India, where more than half the
population, resides in rural spaces, it becomes essential that the
policies are made with an orientation towards the rural
development. The Ministry of Rural development, as the face of
government for rural population, has rolled out a variety of
welfare schemes like MGNREGA – Mahatma Gandhi National
Rural Employment Guarantee Act and PMAY-G – Pradhan Mantri
Awaas Yojna Gramin, aimed at employment and housing for all.
These schemes have been the very hallmarks of the social
infrastructure of the country. It has fostered equality, and has
been holistic and an aggressive attempt at alleviating poverty and
for inclusive growth of all places. This has helped reduce
migration and urbanization of only few places but has led to
holistic growth across locations.
However as the scope of these schemes have increased, the
conventional approach of the government faced challenges. The
widening interest and intersection with technology in governance
has reinvigorated the process. Towards this, there has been
sustained endeavor in the recent past to marry new emerging
areas of technology to government. This has led to better
implementation and management of the schemes and bringing e
governance to people. The focus has been on automation of the
processes and making the benefits accessible to the citizens.
To tackle the challenges stunting the progress of the welfare
schemes, ICT enabled platforms like Awaassoft Awaas App, Gram
Samvaad and NREGAsoft have been introduced. Digital
governance has facilitated more transparency and brought the
citizen close to the government. It has allowed policy
implementation and monitoring so as to ensure that the schemes
are reaching the people and mounting to their development. It has
allowed more pro poor changes, bringing more people in the path
to development. By empowering the rural community, there has been more sustained discourse towards creating a more equal and
inclusive society. However the IT enabled governance has many
challenges as well in a developing country like India.
In this paper, we will cover these technologies in detail,
understanding how they are helping in deliverance of the schemes
and building an equal, sustainable and inclusive society. Along
with that, we will also briefly glimpse at the challenges in e
governance and the larger implications for the government.
Abhishek Aggarwal, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta and Ajai Kumar Garg. India’s Digital Platform: low cost and efficient model for Digital inclusion
Abstract: Digitalisation is a central driving force of growth for both individual countries and the global economy as a whole. In particular, digital technologies offer new opportunities for businesses, workers and citizens to engage in economic activity and to enhance efficiency. However, due to uneven distribution of digital resources including access to internet has posed challenges with regard to outreach of the benefits to all sections and regions globally. The Digital Platform that Indian Government has developed has a long term vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and a knowledge economy, is being used to harness the digital technologies and the internet to bridge the digital divide, empowering and improving the quality of life of our citizens. Importantly, countries around the world are realizing the critical importance of using software based infrastructure to drive their national initiatives i.e. in education, skilling, social benefits, and financial inclusion. Yet, very few countries have the knowledge capital i.e. the capability and capacity to conceptualise, plan, implement, deploy and support the roll out of a national scale, secure software infrastructure for the benefit of their citizens. The Digital Governance model of India is a successful story of a low-cost world class technology that is being hailed across the globe for digital inclusion and public service delivery.
Sveinung Legard, George Anthony Giannoumis, Sissel Hovik and Cristina Paupini. Variation in E-Participation Schemes and Strategies: Comparative Case Study of Oslo, Madrid, and Melbourne
Abstract: Why are some cities more eager to adopt e-participation schemes than others, and why do e-participation practices vary among cities who adopts them? Current comparative research on e-participation in local government normally uses large-scale samples to identify determinants of e-participation adoption. Although these samples typically identify significant variables such as political will, modernization ambitions and political crisis, they often lack fine-grained explanations of the causal patterns leading to different forms of e-participation. In this on-going research paper, we therefore compare e-participation strategies and platforms in three cities: Oslo, Melbourne and Madrid. All cities are major urban centers within their countries and have affluent, highly educated and digitally connected populations. They do, however, have very different approaches to e-participation. We base our preliminary findings on government documents. Our analysis of these texts focuses on how these actors seek to attribute meaning or change practices through their communication with audiences in the field. Through the interviews, we both seek to elaborate on views presented in the documents, but also to trace the role these actors have played in developing the cities’ e-participatory practices. The aim of this process tracing is to understand the causal processes and complex decision-making leading to the adoption of the particular form of e-participation in the cities. The goal is to complement the existing large sample literature on determinants of e-participation adoption. In addition, we want to develop a richer understanding of the differences between the various forms of e-participation adopted in the cities, which is often lost in the coarse typologies used in large n studies.
Kayleen Manwaring. Surfing the third wave of computing: towards identification of challenges for digital government
Abstract: A ‘third wave’ of computing is emerging, based on the widespread use of processors with data handling and communications capabilities embedded in a variety of objects and environments that were not previously computerized, in areas such energy and transport infrastructure, industrial and home automation, surveillance, environmental management, healthcare and consumer products. The third wave has had many names, including ubiquitous and pervasive computing, ambient intelligence, and the Internet of Things. It has prompted significant sociotechnical change, that is, the many new things, activities and relationships enabled by the third wave.
The review undertaken of this sociotechnical change resulted in the development of a technical research framework involving attributes of, and interactions between, the technologies. It also revealed a number of challenges for individuals arising out of these new things, activities and relationships. The original analysis was not undertaken in the context of digital government, but in the context of the protection of individuals as ‘consumers’ rather than ‘citizens’. However, some of the findings of this study are nevertheless relevant to the aims of this conference (particularly Track 5) for a number of reasons. Most importantly, much of the technology discussed is currently being used or has significant potential to be used in the public sector, particularly in the context of smart cities. As a result, many of the detrimental outcomes identified in the original analysis are relevant to citizens interacting with eObjects provided or used by government agencies to provide products and services, not just those supplied by the private sector.
Shiva Saketh Sanka and Gaurav Jain. Electronic Citizen Service Delivery, MeeSeva - Telangana State, India
Abstract: MeeSeva initiated in the year 2011 provides smart, citizen-centric, ethical, efficient and effective governance leveraging advancements in technology. The initiative involves the delivery of government services to citizens & businesses of all strata in a universal and non-discriminatory manner. The core design of MeeSeva was based on the objectives of improved efficiency, transparency and accountability for the government resulting in significantly improved service delivery to citizens.
MeeSeva is an interface between government departments and citizens acting as the nodal agency (Electronic Service Delivery) as well as the platform for delivery of G2C services. MeeSeva has redefined the way Government services are delivered to citizens by bringing about 600+ services of 38 departments on a single platform. MeeSeva has taken government to the citizen’s doorsteps through various touch points which include:
-4500+ MeeSeva centers spread across the state
-A mobile app called T App Folio (launched in February 2018) which can be used through iOS, Android, USSD, IVRS reaching out to citizens with smart phone, feature phone, and no phone users
-A web portal
In the year 2016, ITE&C department conceptualized MeeSeva 2.0 to undertake a major strengthening of key aspects to improve the performance of MeeSeva and deliver a significant improved service delivery experience to citizens.
Gerardo Israel Padilla Villarreal. Digital government under a triple-helix scope: an analysis for policy design.
Abstract: In developing countries, the consolidation of digital government strategies is slow due to the absence of policies to provide innovation systems. It is proven that this is caused by the unsuccessful implementation of triple-helix models. The following research is focused on the policy design by the interaction of government, academia and industries as a source of innovation. Among the findings, it is concluded that a well-integrated triple-helix model can create an optimal environment to set digital government strategies for policy making, this in accordance with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal #17: Partnership for the goals. It is expected that these outcomes encourage relevant actors to work together and ease the setting of e-government strategies in developing countries.
Abhishek Behl, Pankaj Dutta and Meena Chavan. Study of E-governance and online donors for achieving financial resilience post natural disasters
Abstract: The world is witnessing an increasing number of natural disasters. Technology has helped to combat major aspects of the same while economic and financial losses of the victims are largely unavoidable. Disaster recovery involves collaborative role of governance, technology and financial aid. The present study aims to study the behavioural aspect of financial donors who offer monetary help for financial resilience of the victims. The study uses Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and extends it by measuring the effect of “voluntariness” in understanding the behaviour. The paper studies the floods in Kerala, India, and aims to understand how online financial donors helped in e-governance and rebuilding the State. The study collects primary data of 308 financial donors and tests it against eight hypotheses. The results show that while voluntariness acts as a mediating variable for performance expectancy and its relationship with behavioural intention, it has insignificant effect on effort expectancy. The study found four out of eight hypotheses were giving significant results. The results also confirm that e-governance portals and voluntariness activities were much higher in Kerala than any other state in the country. An important conclusion was that both societal influence and facilitating conditions played a significant role in inclining the financial donors to contribute using e-governance portals. The results could be inspiration to studies in areas where there are recurring disasters. The study also offers both practical and theoretical insights to the field of e-governance and financial resilience. Study can further be extended to geographical areas with recurring disasters to test the consistency of results.
Pin-Yu Chu and Feng-Wu Lee. An Evaluation of Motivations and Perceived Impacts s of Open Government Data
Abstract: Open government data, as an enabler of transparent, accountable, and effective public administration institutions, becomes more and more important nowadays, so does the need for effective ways to understand the needs of its users. In research, we identify important motivations, and expectation of various OGD users, including people from academia, non-profit organization, private sector, and government. We conduct a large-scale online survey of users of open government data in Taiwan. Our analyses is based information from 3,179 valid respondents. Our results indicate that the these four types of OGD users share similar motivations, indicating that they care about social issues and public values such as transparency, citizen and customer needs, etc. The impacts of OGD has not significantly recognized by many OGD users yet. Thus, government should further explore user needs in order to encourage the use and development of OGD.
Muhammad Iqbal Hafizon, Adhi Wicaksono and Fabian Nur Farizan. E-Toll Laut: Blockchain Port as the Key for Realizing Indonesia’s Maritime Fulcrume
Abstract: Since the concept of Indonesia as the world's maritime fulcrum was initiated in 2014, the Government of Indonesia has begun to move quickly in formulating Indonesia's maritime connectivity policy. Indonesia's so-called "sea highway" (Tol Laut) program is one of them. However, this policy is considered to be less effective in solving logistical distribution chain problems which often caused the high price of basic goods in the market. Based on the results of the authors' observation, the process of dismantling containers at Indonesian ports can take more than 4 days. This is quite alarming, considering that the Indonesian port is the key to logistics distribution both between Indonesian islands and the international world. Therefore, the writing team formulated a concept of Indonesian “E-Toll Laut” (sea e-highway) policy as an e-governance solution to improve port management in Indonesia. E-Toll Laut itself is a name that the team of authors designates to explain the mechanism of blockchain port management in Indonesia. Based on the author's research team, this system is proven to be able to guarantee accountability, simplify the monitoring process, and accelerate bureaucratic processes and port transactions that are considered as accidents of the dwelling time process in Indonesia. The writing team then used Makassar port as a case study to give clearer picture for the problem.
Sundar Balakrishna. Is Information Technology (IT) Education Industry-relevant and Gender-inclusive? Perspectives from Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract: Industry reports show that fresh engineering and non engineering graduates from universities are not readily employable. The Government-owned Andhra Pradesh Information Technology Academy (APITA) seeks to equip graduates from the state’s degree and engineering colleges with industry-relevant skill sets for gainful employment. This study describes the activities of APITA, and empirically examines two questions: (1) Do students from colleges affiliated to APITA command higher salaries as compared to students from colleges not affiliated to APITA? (2) Do women graduates receive starting salaries that are lower than their male counterparts? Using data from placements conducted by APITA for the state’s students in the year 2017-18, the study finds that that the job market signals the higher quality of APITA-trained students by offering them higher salaries as compared to those students from colleges that are not APITA affiliates. The study also shows that there is a wage premium attributable to the female gender, insofar as entry level salary levels is concerned. Drawing from this empirical evidence, the study further highlights the deficiencies in information technology education in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh with reference to industry requirements, and gender inclusiveness. The constraints faced by APITA, and its future role in addressing the deficiencies noted are discussed, along with managerial implications.
Frank Michael and Timrawon Michaels. Towards e-Governance through a People’s Portal in India
Abstract: A controlling factor for a government from fully actualizing the transformation from e-Government to e-Governance could be a conflict of interest such as the fear of becoming completely transparent as they would then be held accountable. In this work, the rationale behind the need for a formation of an e-Governance structure, shaped and mobilized through citizen initiatives using ICT platforms, is detailed.
Adrià Rodríguez-Pérez, Pol Valletbó-Montfort and Jordi Cucurull. Bringing transparency and trust to elections: using blockchains for the transmission and tabulation of results
Abstract: The transmission and tabulation of results are critical steps in the election process. If election results are provided quickly and transparently, they may inspire trust and confidence on the overall management of the contest. On the other side, the late and questionable delivery of results may raise concerns and suspicion. In some cases, unproper counting and tabulation procedures have brought candidates to question election results and even spurred long periods of violence. In this paper we explore the potential of blockchain technology to enhance the counting and tabulation procedures during elections. Blockchains are distributed ledgers technologies whose transactions are protected cryptographically. It means that their contents cannot be tampered with nor modified in the long term. We argue that blockchain technology meets the requirements for electronic transmission and consolidation of election results. To prove so, we have implemented a proof of concept with a smart contract running on an Ethereum blockchain that registers the address of several polling stations and records the tally sheets that these submit at the end of the election. We also resort to the smart contract for the automatic and accurate consolidation of the election results once these have been submitted.
Mikhail Bundin, Aleksei Martynov, Maksim Prilukov and Viktoria Umanskaya. New Online Tools for Self-Assessment: Case of Russia
Abstract: The use of information technologies for government or public administration (e-government) is an inherent and key element of any modern information society. It is difficult now to find a sphere where the IT would not be used. In Russia, one of the most conservative areas for the use of information technologies was the sphere associated with the implementation of state and municipal control and supervision functions. However, the State Program on Reforming Control and Supervisory Activities adopted in 2016 announced the necessity for widespread use of new information technologies in implementing state control and supervising. As a result, some of Russian state control and supervisory authorities introduced special electronic services and tools for online self-assessment, which are now actively promoted and serve for the organization of control and supervisory activities, partially displacing its traditional forms and methods. The article provides a brief overview of existing practice of using electronic services for state control and supervising, as well as a critical suggests to introduce a set of regulatory principles for e-inspection tools.
Nadine Ogonek, Michael Räckers and Jörg Becker. How to Master the “E”: Tools for Competence Identification, Provision and Preservation in a Digitalized Public Sector
Abstract: The digitalization of every aspect of life is in full swing and becoming an all-embracing societal phenomenon. Public administrations worldwide, eager to increase their efficiency and effectiveness, are in a change process, induced by the pervasiveness of technological advancements. This development does not only mean the substitution of analogue processes by the integration of information technologies, but first and foremost leads to changing demands on the tasks, roles and competences of the ones, who need to implement those changes, i.e. the public servants. This study therefore explores relevant roles and respective competences with regard to IT in public administrations and offers tools for their successful preservation to master this e-induced change: Based on a literature review, document analyses and expert workshops, 19 reference roles in public administrations are identified that are important for the implementation of eGovernment. In addition, we develop role fact sheets and competence matrices as possible means for the identification and documentation, which in turn can be supportive of a possible future competence preservation.
Erwin Alampay. Rationalizing local planning processes for Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Ecosystems Management and Restoration
Abstract: The three approaches of disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, and ecosystems management and restoration (DRR-CCA-EMR), is collectively known as the Integrated Risk Management (IRM) require local government units (LGUs) to be at the forefront of the planning process. However, LGUs’ ability to undertake many of these plans (e.g. DRR-CCA; Coastal Resource Management; etc.) and mainstream them locally has been hampered by their limited capacities and understanding in the use of various planning frameworks and approaches, and ability to access and process the needed information.

To address the inadequacy and confusion, the Partners for Resilience (PfR)—represented by the Assistance and Cooperation for Community Resilience and Development (ACCORD) and CARE Philippines—and the Center for Local and Regional Governance (CLRG) of the UP National College of Public Administration and Governance (UP NCPAG) collaborated in organizing and conducting a series of activities (conference-workshop and an experts RTD) in order to help rationalize this process.

This practitioner or experience paper discusses the challenges of rationalizing the automation, access and use of DRR-CCA-EMR information in eGovernment in order to develop more integrated plans that engage stakeholders at the local level.
Shuhua Liu, Liting Pan and Yupei Lei. What is the role of New Generation of ICTs in transforming government operation and redefining State-citizen relationship in the last decade?
Abstract: This article first introduce a new government initiative emerging after the US presidential election in 2008. Comparing to the more descriptive definitions of e-government, supporters of these new government initiatives emphasize the transformative and normative aspect of the newest generation of Information and Communication Technology (ICTs). They argue that the new initiative redefines how government should operate and transform state-citizen relationships. To understand the core of this initiative and whether it offers new opportunities to solve public problems, we collected and analyzed research papers published in the e-governance area between 2008 and 2017. Our analysis demonstrates that the use of new generation of ICTs has promoted the government information infrastructure. In other words, the application of new ICTs enables the government to accumulate and use a large amount of data, so that the government makes better decisions. The advancement of open data, the wide use of social media, and the potential of data analytics have also generated pressure to address challenging questions and issues in e-democracy. However, the analysis leads us to deliberate on whether the use of new generation of ICTs worldwide have actually achieved their goal. In the conclusion, we present challenges to be addressed before new innovative ICTs realize their potential towards better public governance.
Lukman Lamid, Isa Ibrahim Ali and Usman Abdullahi Gambo. Building a Strong Foundation for Government Digital Transformation: The Case of Federal Government of Nigeria
Abstract: Government digital transformation is a process, resource intensive, it necessitates shared strategic vision and directions to be realized. One of the top global strategic directions for e-government in the last one decade is the adoption of Whole-of-Government (WoG) approach to achieving Government Digital Transformation (GDT). WoG denotes public service organizations working across portfolio boundaries to achieve shared goals and integrated response to cross cutting issues with the aid of ICT. GDT is the highest level of digital capability a government can build.
This approach is intended to take advantage of ICT capabilities to transform governance as a whole. However, government transformation through a WoG approach is conceptually easy but difficult in practice. It requires, among other things, transformational leadership; shared e-government strategy and road map; trained, reoriented and empowered public servants; effective government-wide IT coordination and governance mechanisms; public service reforms; and standardized information technology enterprise architecture framework. The Federal Government of Nigeria has done much to achieving digital transformation in the public sector. Nigerian government has an e-Government Master Plan, the public service is undergoing reforms both in leadership and processes with quite few strategic plans.

While all these are on-going, there is need for government-wide, common information technology enterprise architecture framework and effective IT coordination and governance for e-government implementation in the country which can be leveraged collectively as a WoG or individual government organizations to build an efficient IT systems environment for WoG and GDT. The envisioned Nigerian IT enterprise architecture framework and coordinating governance structure is a blueprint, guiding how government-wide and individual government organization’s IT systems are to be deployed and managed to achieving digital transformation in Nigeria. The IT enterprise architecture framework, coordination and governance would be an integral part of the country’s ICT policy and e-government development strategy.
The propositions in this paper is based on the country’s peculiarity, study, literature reviews and personal experiences of the authors. The framework as presented in this paper is currently being spearheaded for adoption and implementation by the country’s IT development and regulating body- National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA). It describes and prescribes overall Government Operating Model (GOM) as set of strategic principles and requirements upon which WoG implementation would be based while controls and autonomy are given to each public institution in the WoG to make specific IT decisions based on the choice of the GOM for achieving GDT. The detailed experience sharing would be a follow up to the research paper.
Nick Robinson, Laura Kask and Robert Krimmer. The Estonian Data Embassy and the Applicability of the Vienna Convention: An Exploratory Analysis
Abstract: The Vienna Convention has long stood as a cornerstone in the establishment, regulation and conservation of modern diplomatic relations between independent sovereign States. Current technological advances have shifted the landscape of modern diplomacy, with international law requiring to adapt in the face of novel and unique challenges. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the applicability of the Vienna Convention outside of the traditional diplomatic mission. Taking the case of the Estonian Data Embassy in Luxembourg, we assess its reinterpretation of the Vienna Convention, the initial challenges faced from a legal perspective, before considering its criterion for revising the Vienna Convention within a digital era. This early analysis hopes to advance discussions around the wider applicability of the Vienna Convention, with particular attention drawn to the extraterritorial storage of data and information systems by different States outside of their own borders.
Charru Malhotra, Abhinav Sharma and Nishtha Agarwal. The Online Citizen Engagement Platform of the Government of India (GoI)-MyGov: A Case Study
Abstract: The advent of ICT has compelled governments all over the world to incorporate citizens into policy making. Though developed countries have been forerunners in this, developing countries are not far behind. India formulated a ‘Framework for Citizen Engagement in e-Governance’ in 2011 which kick started citizen engagement activities on individual platforms of Departments/Ministries. However, due to lack of coherent views and limited outreach, Government developed one-stop and dedicated indigenous social media platform of GoI. Based on dedicated study of the platform, the following paper attempts to delineate upon the deliverables of MyGov and attempts to formulate a few suggestions for the Indian citizen engagement platform.
Rama Krushna Das, Manisha Panda and Sweta Shree Dash. Promoting Bug Bounty Hunters for Secured Digital India
Abstract: With the increase in security related incidents, organizations across the world find it difficult to deploy and manage web-enabled applications for the benefit of the user community. India is no exception to this. While on one hand, the Government of India is trying its best to extend a plethora of services to the citizens through its Digital India campaign, on the other hand, the cyber attackers have stood as a major threat as they are becoming more and more innovative and resourceful to capitalize on security vulnerabilities. This has become a real challenge on the part of all Government departments in India to ensure secured services to its citizens. The authorities at the apex, must improve and evolve their vulnerability assessment and identification processes to tackle these attackers and keep their users safe by taking help of bug bounty hunters This paper proposes different models to effectively manage and engage bug bounty hunters for finding out bugs proactively in Government websites, web-applications and mobile apps.
Nuno Ramos Carvalho and Luis Barbosa. Deep Learning Powered Question-Answering Framework For Organizations Digital Transformation
Abstract: In the context of digital transformation by governments, public sector and other organizations, many information is moving to digital platforms. Chatbots and similar question-answering systems are becoming popular to answer information queries, opposed to browsing online repositories of information. State-of-art-approaches for these systems may be laborious to implement, hard to train and maintain, and also require a high level of expertise.

This work explores the definition of a generic framework to systematically build question-answering systems. A sandbox implementation of this framework enables the deployment of an out-of-the-box system, directly from an already existing collection of documents, without additional effort. These systems can be then used to provide a communication channel to enrich the organization digital presence.
Olusegun Agbabiaka. eGovernment Public Value Chain: Creating Value before Measuring Outcomes
Abstract: Better service outcomes and higher public value are enhanced and sustained by the strength or weakness of the value creation chain. How much value the process, the system, the technology contribute and how much value the people who manage and interact with these other components of the value chain possess, as well as how the relationships of each element affect one another and impact entire value creation provide a significant research challenge. Value cannot be measured at the service outcomes level successfully without creating an environment that deliberately adds “actual value” to the activities leading to the delivery of those services. This paper describes an ongoing research effort to develop an appropriate framework to evaluate and build capabilities of public sector agencies along the core elements of the eGovernment value chain to create, support and sustain delivery of enduring public value to citizens through innovative digital services. Rather than focus on the end goal - outcomes of services - the framework will take a step further at assessing and strengthening the four core pillars of the eGovernment Public Value Chain involved in the delivery of innovative digital services and ultimately, the creation of sustainable public value.
Abstract: At present the government has programs to build inclusion and equality in the community where each individual is empowered and given equal opportunities to participate in both social and political processes. Equality in the community is a cultural characteristic of society in this digital era. Everyone wants to get equal access to services provided by the government. This provides various benefits when equality in public participation can be applied through e-Government. Based on an economic perspective, increasing public access to government information and services can create economic value, increase efficiency and facilitate the business . From other perspectives, particularly from the political and civic engagement, as well as from the cultural and social participation, digital technologies enable new ways of communication, collaboration, and participation. Unfortunately, until now e-Government is only viewed from a technological perspective and does not involve community participation in e-Government development initiatives. As a result, services provided by the government have not been in accordance with the needs of the community. E-Gov 2.0 is a concept where public participation is a key factor in e-Government development initiatives. This study aims to analyze the extent to which e-Gov 2.0 readiness is based on the use of e-Government services and public participation in both countries, Indonesia and Malaysia. The results of the study generally showed that public participation in e-Government is still relatively low (<40%) even though citizen's e-participation interest in joining is very high (>90%) and citizen perception about e-Participation is highly positive (>99%).
Irving Reascos. Implanting IT Applications in Government Institutions: A Process Model Emerging from a Case Study in a Medium-Sized Municipality
Abstract: Organizations of any kind, including companies and government institutions, understand the need to incorporate information technologies (IT) to improve internal and external communication, faster access to information, modernize decision making and provide better service to their customers. Incorporating IT into operations and management requires changes at various levels of the organization (services, processes, forms of work, technology and organizational structure) and brings up several challenges. Considering the level of maturity of existing IT solutions, the acquisition and implantation of ready-to-use software applications is, nowadays, a common way of gaining access to IT solutions. However, there is a lack of models to guide this process. The objective of this article is to propose such a model. The proposed model is grounded on the findings of a case study carried out in medium size municipality that recently went through the implantation process of an ERP IT application. The study allowed to identify key features in different facets of the implantation process. The study mainly involved interviews with key participants in the process. The model proposed in this article emerged during this study and accounts for the issued and concerns identified.
Aneerav Sukhoo. Enhancing Digital Government in Mauritius through Artificial Intelligence
Abstract: Artificial Intelligence is poised to be a challenging area to solve many of the problems encountered by human beings. These problems may be in the health, education, agriculture or tourism sectors to name just a few. In this paper, AI technologies applicable for the Government of Mauritius are considered. A survey of AI tools are covered before discussing on potential applications for Government. The case of a department involved in provision of ICT support services is considered with AI applications being used. Further AI projects are also elaborated upon for the efficient and effective delivery of services to client Ministries and departments. With the establishment of a Mauritian Artificial Intelligence Council and implementation of various AI projects, the Mauritian Government is transform the way its services are delivered to the public.
Leonidas Anthopoulos and Evdoxia Denni. Spatial Planning and Smart Cities: matching interrelations for cross-city sustainable living with evidence from Greece
Abstract: Discussions for urban sustainability have emerged radically the last decade. Recently, the United Nations (UN) defined 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which urge cities to adopt a new approach for urban growth that focuses on human, environment and economy, and uses technology, innovation and research as a means for its implementation. In this regard, spatial planning is expected to contribute significantly to a sustainable city transformation. Spatial planning is a complicated and dynamic government process that defines space’s use and affects urban growth, which recognizes city capacity and trends. On the other hand, smart cities (SC) is a modern domain that introduces several technologies and services, which support governments, communities and city stakeholders for a sustainable urban living. Therefore, it seems that SC can affect the spatial planning process and vice versa. The aim of this paper is to investigate how SC and urban planning are interrelated. Findings from both literature and a Greek case study are utilized to extract the factors of this interrelation.
Harekrishna Misra and Rama Krushna Das. Citizen Empowerment: Block Chain supported E-Governance in Dairy Cooperative Sector
Abstract: E-Governance considers the dimension of business as one of its major constituents. Block chain attempts to bring in transparency in transactions and E-Governance focuses on this issue as well. Dairy sector, especially in cooperative sector, small and marginal farmers in developing countries depend mainly on dairy production. In cooperative model, members are empowered to govern their own organizations and electing its members to assume roles in governance structure need verification their eligibilities. This process needs transparent validation of their eligibility and it is argued that block chain architecture would be helpful. E-Governance services are much needed for supporting these farmers (citizens under E-governance framework) to support their governance process. Thus, it is imperative that stakeholders in the supply chain work in tandem to ensure that eligibility conditions are fulfilled in a transparent manner. In this paper, a conceptual framework is presented to relate E-Governance to block chain to explore feasibility of relating to efficient governance by bringing more transparency. In order to explore this dairy cooperative sector is taken up and E-Governance services are assessed with service oriented architecture framework. Case of dairy cooperative society Union is taken up to apply this conceptual framework and understand feasibility applying block chain principles. Future work on this includes application of block chain principles and assessing the effects by relating to actual benefits accrued by the farmers.
Luis Felipe M. Ramos and João Marco C. Silva. Privacy and Data Protection Concerns Regarding the Use of Blockchains in Smart Cities
Abstract: In this work we investigate which aspects of data protection regulation must be carefully observed when implementing Blockchain-based projects in smart cities. This technology provides interesting properties and allows governments to develop flexible and innovative data management systems. Nevertheless, realizing the benefits of using Blockchains requires understanding the government processes along with the legal framework and political setting imposed on government. Though it is a buzzword, Blockchain may not always be the best solution for data processing, and carrying out a Data Protection Impact Assessment could allow an analysis of the necessity and proportionality of the mechanism. Furthermore, principles relating to security of data remain applicable to Blockchains. We discuss points of interaction between Blockchain technology and the European Union data protection framework, and provide recommendations on how to better develop Blockchain-based projects in smart cities. The findings of the study should provide public sector actors with a guideline to assess the real necessity and better format of a Blockchain-based application.
Claudia Milena Rodriguez Alvarez and Oscar Javier Almanza Rodríguez. Digobot Analytics: Intelligent follow-up to the digital government policy in Colombia
Abstract: Digobot Analytics is a project that improves intelligence in the follow-up to the digital government policy in Colombia integrating different sources of information and applying techniques of data analytics, machine learning and web scrapping that allow to take advantage of the public information available in the web portals of the public entities of the Colombian State. Currently, Digobot Analytics analyses and integrates information from 2 types of sources: first of the web portals developed independently by public entities of the national and territorial order and secondly, the one obtained from the web portals developed by the ICT Ministry for territorial entities (sponsored by the Mi Colombia Digital program). Subsequently consolidates the data obtained in the Data Warehouse of the ICT Ministry for its analysis and reporting. The extraction of information from the portals is done by combining two mechanisms: a robot that uses scrapping and machine learning techniques to extract information and an ETL system (Extract – Transform – Load). Digobot Analytics was conceived through the Catalysts of Innovation program that advances the Center for Digital Public Innovation of the Government of Colombia. This solution is the first and only one in the country in the government that uses these techniques for monitoring and analysis of public policy and is expected to serve as an example for other public entities to begin incorporating these technologies in their projects, since it will be available the source code in the public software portal of the Colombian State.
Charru Malhotra and Rashmi Anand. Role of Emerging Technologies in Governance: Cross Country Perspective
Abstract: Development in a country is fostered by its efficient governance. To ensure betterment of their citizens, governments over the world have accepted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), announced by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in the year 2015, as acceptable governance targets for all. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) serve as meaningful contrivances to engage with all the cross-currents linking the 17 SDGs together. In present times, these technologies have also been accepted as means for co-creating values for citizens as insisted by participatory models of governance too. This paper attempts to examine all aspects of employing digital technologies in accelerating the processes of governance. Based on an analysis of the related academic literature and extensive field experience of the author, the paper seeks to address the following questions:
● How emerging technologies are expected to help achieve the SDGs and strengthen the relationship between the state and its citizens?
● What are some of the challenges that usually confront the uptake of emerging technologies in governance context?
● What is expected to be the face of governance in the wake of emerging technologies including artificial intelligence, transparently immersive
techniques, and newer digital platforms?
After addressing these questions, the paper attempts to propose some viable strategies that can strengthen the application of digital technologies in governance.
João Marco Silva and Vitor Fonte. Data Security and Trustworthiness in Online Public Services: An Assessment of Portuguese Institutions
Abstract: Providing public services through the internet is an effective approach towards an encompassing number of citizens being covered by them and for cost reduction. However, the fast development of this area has fostered discussion and legislation regarding information security and trustworthiness. In addition to security mecha- nisms for data processed and stored internally, service providers must ensure that data exchanged between their servers and citizens are not intercepted or modified when traversing heterogeneous and uncontrolled networks. Moreover, such institutions should provide means enabling the citizen to verify the authenticity of the services offered. In this way, the present work provides a comprehensive overview regarding the security posture of Portuguese public institutions in their online services. It consists of non-invasive ro- bustness evaluation of the deployed solutions for end-to-end data encryption and the correct use of digital certificates. As a result, we provide some recommendations aiming to enhance the current panorama in the majority of the 111 online services considered in this study.
Voahangy Rakotonirina and Harilanto Raoelson. The Digitization of Custom Administration and its Impacts on Enterprises Competitiveness. Case of Madagascar.
Abstract: In the context of globalization, where competition is tough, this study tries to assess the impact of the digitization of the customs administration on the enterprises competitiveness. Since 2005, modernization as part of reform program has been one of the solutions proposed by the Malagasy government to deal with the bureaucratic dysfunctions of the public administration, including the customs administration (Act n ° 2005-023, 17th October) in order to improve the public finances governance. According to the findings of investigations with the customs administration officials and with the heads of enterprises, positive outcomes have been noticed in using electronic tools. However, despite efforts to digitize customs procedures, various obstacles are still to be overcome.
Javier Carranza Torres Torres. Citizen-to-government data partnerships to harness non traditional data and complement official statistics in the data revolution of the Sustainable Development Goals
Abstract: The Cape Town Global Action Plan for Sustainable Development Data subscribed in 2017 at the first World Data Forum highlights the need of National Statistical Offices (NSOs) to adapt to evolving demands. This need is triggered by all kinds of decision-makers, specially from governments under constant pressures to deliver focused, tailored and timely solutions. Based on a classification framework adapted from the e- governance concept, this document classifies and analyses international, regional and local initiatives thought to aid or monitor government actions and that are granting access to and use of non-traditional data sources. These are citizens to government data partnerships, that use technologies like open geospatial information platforms and can complement surveys and traditional censuses in the official statistics data stream,complementing demographic and social statistics in the SDG walk. Final remarks will address the question of how civil society NGOs can strengthen their general capacities inside the statistical production processes to effectively support NSOs through collaboration projects at national and international levels in the data revolution quest.
Ebenezer Agbozo. The Private Sector as an E-Government Enabler
Abstract: Assessing the development of e-government over the years, one can observe that research in the field with respect to its benefits has primarily probed into the role and impact of e-government on improving and optimizing business processes the private sector and enterprises. The study draws on the concepts of Public-Private Partnerships and Actor-Network Theory based on selected cases to substantiate the premise that the private sector is a major role-player in creating the grounds and is a catalyst for ensuring electronic participation. The study’s disclosure serves as a recommendation to e-government deployment and oversight agencies in developing economies to create the necessary environment for the private sector to be able to support government in achieving a formidable e-government system.
Débora Dutra and Delfina Soares. The current context of mobile application use in Central Administration of Brazil and Portugal
Abstract: This research aims to explore the scenario of mobile applications made available by the central administrations of Brazil and Portugal to citizens. To this end, 25 services in Brazil were analyzed, which could be performed partially or integrally, through APP. In Portugal 21 APPs that provided some kind of service through this channel were part of the study. Although a more extensive set of data has been collected, as it is an ongoing investigation, the analysis topics presented in this study are: Realization of the Service; Classification of the Service; Official Category; N ° of Services versus N ° of APPs. The main results reflect that in Brazil the area of government with the greatest number of services through APPs is Social Security; that 60% of services can be carried out entirely via APP; that almost 90% of the services are in the Interactive Stage and that for all services analyzed there are 12 APPs, this means that the same APP offers several services. In Portugal three areas of government stand out in the offer of services: Recreation; Social Support and Health; Citizenship and Documentation, in that order and sharing 74% of the offer. The vast majority of services are in the Interactive Stage (48%) and in the Informational and Educational stage (38%). In the Service versus APP relationship, each of the analyzed applications dealt with a service.
Luciana Rigotto, Elita Martins Andrade, Beatriz Barreto Brasileiro Lanza, Andréa Paula Segatto and Marcia Ramos May. Understanding Strategic Alliances in the Public Sector: The case of Brazilian DMV
Abstract: This paper discusses strategic alliances in the Brazilian public sector through a contractual relationship of the provision of information technology and communication. This is an exploratory-descriptive case study, with the objective of understanding the role of the supplier in the contractor's strategic planning of technology in the public sector. It can be observed that dependence, trust, communication, commitment, and adaptation are present in the relationship between the supplier and the technology taker. These constructions go beyond the limits of technology supply contract and are characterized as a strategic alliance in the partnership between the parties. This study contributes to the understanding of the role of public technology organizations in the process of innovation of public sector organizations.
Maciej Janowski, Adegboyega Ojo, Edward Curry and Lukasz Porwol. Mediating Open Data Consumption – Identifying Story Patterns for Linked Open Statistical Data
Abstract: Statistical data account for a very large proportion of data published on open data platforms. This category of data are which are often of high quality, value and public interest; are gradually being published as 5-star linked open statistical data or data cubes (LOSD) for easy integration and cross-border comparability. However, publishing open data as linked data (i.e. graph oriented) significantly increases the technical skill requirements for end-user consumption. We address this problem by mediating the exploration and analysis of LOSD published on open data platforms through the use of data stories. After providing the requisite background information on LOSD, we identified data story patterns from extant literature and show how these patterns can be employed in analysing LOSD. Subsequently, we provide a case study to illustrate the use of these data story patterns as an end-user domain-specific language to explore and analyse LOSD. We argue that using data stories for exploring and analysing on open data platforms has the potential to significantly increase the adoption and use of (linked) open data.
Charalampos Alexopoulos, Zoi Lachana, Aggeliki Androutsopoulou, Vasiliki Diamantopoulou, Yannis Charalabidis and Michalis Avgerinos Loutsaris. How Machine Learning is changing e-Government
Abstract: Big Data is, clearly, an integral part of modern information societies. A vast amount of data is, daily, produced and it is estimated that, for the years to come, this number will grow dramatically. In order for transforming this hidden provided information into a useful one, the use of advanced technologies, such as Machine Learning is deemed appropriate. Over the last years, Machine Learning has grown a great effort considering the given opportunities its usage provides. Furthermore, Machine Learning is a technology that can handle Big Data classification for statistical or even more complex purposes such as decision making. At the same time the new generation of government, Government 3.0, explores all the new opportunities to tackle any challenge faced by contemporary societies by utilizing new technologies for data driven decision making. Taking into account the opportunities Machine Learning can provide, more and more governments participate in the development of such applications in different governmental domains. But is the Machine Learning only beneficial for public sectors? Although there is a huge number of researches in the literature there is no a comprehensive study towards the analysis of this technology. Our research moves towards this question conducting a comprehensive analysis of the use of Machine Learning from Governments. Through the analysis all benefits and barriers are indicated from the public sectors' perspective pinpointing, also, a number of Machine Learning applications where governments are involved.
Fatemeh Ahmadi Zeleti and Adegboyega Ojo. Agile Mechanisms for Open Data Process Innovation in Public Sector Organizations: Towards Theory Building
Abstract: Process innovation in public organizations is widely documented and has increasingly been the subject of empirical scrutiny. However, no study has attempted to investigate process innovation in open data organizations in public sector. Guided by the Dynamic Capability Theory and based on the detailed study of four open data organizations, we synthesize a theoretical model and a process model for open data process innovation in public sector organizations. Specifically, the study sought to understand how open data process agility is achieved in these organizations. The results highlight the specific agile mechanisms that enable and improve open data process innovation in public sector organizations. The results also provide perspectives on how open data organizations in public sector can change data processes to transform the way they respond to changing demands and external environment.
Yannis Charalabidis, Michalis Avgerinos Loutsaris, Shefali Virkar, Charalampos Alexopoulos, Anna-Sophie Novak and Zoi Lachana. Use Case Scenarios on Legal Machine Learning
Abstract: The operation of Europe as a well-functioning Digital Single Market, where Europeans are able to move among the EU member states and in the other hand the large amount of information about laws that apply in the EU countries has driven to a societal problem in which only legal experts can follow the latest legislation. However, Mass customization tools can help to filter and thereby reduce the flood of legal information and make it easier to be followed even for citizens without legal expertise. ManyLaws is a proposed novel framework and an ICT architecture for the introduction of a set of services for citizens, businesses, and administrations of the European Union, built upon text mining, advanced processing and semantic analysis of legal information. In this paper, we conducted usage scenarios with target groups and analyze them in six dimensions in order to the proper selection of ManyLaws services and provide novel functionalities with the aim of addressing citizens daily problems. Generally, ManyLaws users priorities more basic services such as search functionalities which directly impact their everyday professional and personal use of legal information.
José Carlos Pereira. The genesis of the revolution in Contract Law: Smart Legal Contracts
Abstract: Smart Contracts, which derive from Blockchain technology, is one of the most peremptory applications of this. However, as it is a very recent technology, investors’ uncertainty and fear makes their development slowly and cautiously. There are, therefore, a number of questions and legal problems that arise
Regardless we must recognize the quality of this technology and its impact on the Governance of a nation as well as on private companies and individuals. This impact can be the beginning of a true technological, social and economic revolution that must be anticipated by the law. Since we are talking in particular about contracts, by the contract law.
Ayman Almukhlifi, Hepu Deng and Booi Kam. Critical factors for the adoption of e-government in developing countries: validation of a measurement model
Abstract: The benefits of e-government have attracted many countries across the world to introduce e-government. There is, however, lack of studies in validating a measurement model for evaluating the adoption of e-government in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a measurement model for evaluating the adoption of e-government in developing countries from the perspective of citizens. A pre-test, pilot study, reliability test, the convergent validity, the goodness of model fit and the discriminant validity are performed based on the data collected from 478 respondents using a survey instrument distributed in Saudi Arabia to validate a measurement model. This study, furthermore, validates the measurement model through the use of the structural equation modeling. The results reveal that a total of ten constructs with 39-items are valid for investigating the adoption of e-government in developing countries. This survey instrument provides a useful set of refined measures that can be used in similar contexts for investigating the adoption of e-government.
Cesar Renteria, J. Ramon Gil-Garcia and Theresa Pardo. Toward an Enabler-Based Digital Government Maturity Framework: A Preliminary Proposal Based on Theories of Change
Abstract: Digital government has been seen as a strategy to improve public services, foster engagement with citizens, and modernize government agencies. Regardless of the recognition of this important role in government transformation, there is no consistent evidence in terms of the determinants and results of digital government strategies. More specifically, there is no clarity about what leads to successful digital government initiatives. Stage-based maturity models have been used to better understand the current situation of digital government in terms of results. They could also be seen as useful in helping to understand the resources and capabilities of government agencies and how they contribute to successful digital government projects. However, existing maturity models have been criticised due to their lack of theory, oversimplification of reality, and linear thinking. In an attempt to overcome some of these shortcomings, this paper proposes what we call an enabler-based digital government maturity model. Our proposed model not only argues for a multidimensional view, but also suggests how to think about specific mechanisms of impact. By specifying the mechanisms of influence our proposal starts a necessary conversation about maturity models and the potential complementarity of stage-based and enabler-based approaches.
Mortaza S. Bargh, Ronald Meijer, Marco Vink, Susan van den Braak and Sunil Choenni. On opening sensitive microdata sets in light of GDPR: The case of justice domain microdata
Abstract: To enhance the transparency, accountability and efficiency of the Dutch Ministry of Justice and Security, the ministry has set up an open data program to proactively stimulate sharing its (publicly funded) data sets with the public. Disclosure of personal data is considered as one of the main threats for data opening. In this contribution we conclude that, according to Dutch laws, criminal data within the Dutch justice domain are sensitive according the GDPR and that they can only be opened if these sensitive data are transformed to become without personal information. Subsequently, we argue that having no personal information in the data sets relates to two cases of the data (a) being anonymous or (b) being pseudonymized as defined by GDPR. Cases (a) and (b) depend on whether the data controller cannot or can revert the data protection process, respectively. Based on a state-of-the-art technology called Statistical Disclosure Control (SDC), we argue that case (b) has to be adopted from a data utility viewpoint. To support this claim, we present an experiment with an SDC tool. At the end, we present some consequences of adopting cases (a) and (b), for legislators and policymakers to consider when opening sensitive microdata sets like those within the Dutch justice domain.
Marco Konopacki, Fabro Steibel and Debora Albu. Mudamos: a civil society initiative on collaborative law making in Brazil
Abstract: Brazil’s Constitution instituted a few means of direct democracy including the possibility of any citizen propose a draft bill at a legislative house at the municipal, state or federal level, given the support of a minimum of citizens explicit through their signature. Until today, popular initiative bills’ signatures are paper-based, which is not only costly, but also presents problems connected to transparency and safety principles. ITS Rio believed that technology could transform this process and hence developed a mobile app called “Mudamos” (“we change” in Portuguese) to prove that it is possible to sign bills of popular initiative electronically.

Since the launch of the app Mudamos in March 2017, we have observed that the population has a lot of will to participate and good ideas to propose. However, despite this potential for engagement, citizens experience difficulty when transforming those ideas into draft bills to be presented to legislative houses. Therefore, we have developed “Virada Legislativa” (legal hackathon): a methodology comprising an activity to develop draft bills collectively addressing a single issue and within a timeframe.

In this article, we aim to showcase this toolbox for democratic participation, connecting cutting-edge digital innovations on electronic signatures (online) with social innovative methodologies (offline), highlighting the impact we have had throughout this period as well as the challenges faced and lessons learned.
Abstract: Improving the lives of women through the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is a prominent feature of the global policy agenda, particularly in countries with low female labour and political participation such as Kosovo. This paper looks at grassroots programmes teaching young women advanced ICT skills and the use of open data. It seeks to explore to what extent such programmes contribute to the empowerment of women in the ICT sector in Kosovo. It answers this question through assessing disempowering factors and analysing the strengths and limitations of the programmes in empowering women in technological, social, psychological and political spheres. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with 20 relevant stakeholders. The paper identifies social norms as the main disempowering factor. ICT skills programmes help alleviate their detrimental impact by providing highly-demanded skills, support networks, role models. Moreover, the use of open data during the programmes enhances civic engagement. Nevertheless, the study exposes limitations of the programmes such as their exclusivity, little practical employment assistance, and a shortfall in strengthening political engagement. The study provides practical insights for policymakers on how to improve effectiveness of such programmes and their ability to create broader social benefits. Moreover, it situates open data within a broader context of ICT-enabled empowerment of women.
Arbi Chouikh, Lilia Sfaxi and Sehl Mellouli. Could Facebook Influence Municipal Elections? Tunisian Case Study
Abstract: Since the beginning of the Arab spring, Tunisians have asked for a
new system with fundamental political, social and economic
reforms. People have been revolting for dignity, liberty, social
equality and for equity between regions through the equal division
of wealth. This is why, during the democratic transition, there was
a significant focus on the decentralized development, where local
authorities are more autonomous, which means that the
municipalities will have more authority. On 06 May 2018, the first
municipal elections after the revolution took place in Tunisia.
These elections were preceded by an electoral campaign where
social media were used to debate on different topics related to
these elections. This paper aims to investigate if there is a
correlation that can be deduced between the posts and reactions on
social media, especially on Facebook, and the final results of the
elections. To this end, we will make an analysis of the candidates'
Facebook pages and the reactions of their followers towards their
campaigns in order to understand how far social media insights
were significant in the municipal elections results. Results show
that either on Facebook or in front of the voting ballot, political
parties get the highest number of interactions from citizens, but
there is no direct correlation that can help us predict which list
will be the most voted for. But when considering independent lists
only, results show that their presence in social media and the
reactions of citizens to their publications can be representative of
their final voting results.
Moinul Zaber, Tangila Islam Tanni, Tanjin Taharat and Sharkar Rumee. How strong is my password ? : Understanding the perception of password strength in the developing world
Abstract: Information and communication technologies are proliferating the people’s lives in the global south. With a few exceptions, the global south has traditionally been in the consumer side of the technology marketplace and most of the countries have been the lagers in the technology diffusion curve. Hence the issues of vulnerability of security and privacy in the new technologies are now becoming growing concern in the developing world is fairly recent phenomena. One of the key requirements of ensuring security and privacy in the technology space is consumer awareness of the inherent vulnerability. Without sufficient awareness none of the approaches to e-governance would work fully. This paper tries to ascertain the extent of consumer readiness in using technology based services. First stop of protection in the cyber world is strong and seemingly difficult to predict password. A key concern of technology usage is the perception of password protection. Users are the weakest link in cybersecurity. Password based authentication is considered to be the most popular authentication mechanism. The entire security of a system is dependent on the secrecy of a single word. A good text based password should be easy to remember but hard to guess sequence of characters. Growing technology usage has put us in a position where we need to maintain multiple accounts, which influences users to create highly predictable passwords. A number of researchers have conducted research on user perception on their passwords in the developed world. However, our exhaustive search failed to find similar research in the developing context . In this paper we conduct a survey based scrutiny in Bangladesh. We have collected data from 881 participants and analysed them to identify general perception of password among students and professionals who are exposed of various technology use in their daily lives. Our scrutiny finds common misconceptions, alarming practices and shortcomings in the perception of password use in the cyber space.
Swati Verma. Redefining India’s Open Government Data cycle: Identifying barriers to OGD use by specialist “infomediary” users
Abstract: This study identifies the current trends in the in potential and ongoing use of open government data (OGD) in India from its demand side. It identifies the main barriers to the use of OGD for one category of users, namely the specialist user group. The paper also summarizes the state of research in India and broadens the current perspective on OGD based on empirical data collected using topic modelling on 2000 conversation from a popular infomediary online forum in India identifying the current trends in OGD use. Furthermore, it analyses as a case study an example of a public-private partnership employing OGD in Kerala that formed as a response to mitigate the 2018 flood crisis. The paper redefines the stakeholders and the consumption cycle of OGD, identifying the barriers and constraints for existing and future innovations that might arise out of open data’s civic, economic and political value. In this manner, the study argues that by determining the central discourses in OGD usage of the infomediary community, one could understand the processes of OGD consumption in India.
Viktor Grechyn. Public Wi-Fi metadata in data-driven urban governance
Abstract: This article focuses on how Data Retention Obligation (DRO) relates to public Wi-Fi (PWF) service provision in Australia, highlighting PWF metadata as a product of applying DRO to PWF networks. Following brief overview of DRO regulation and metadata privacy conundrum, three themes are highlighted: access to PWF metadata by Local Government Administrations (LGAs), privacy character of PWF metadata in comparison it of other kinds of communication metadata, and examples of data-driven insights for urban governance which could be sourced from unrestricted access to PWF metadata.
Felix Ter Chian Tan, Nan Zhang, Carmen Leong and Zhe Zhu. Toward Smart City Services: A Platform-Enabled Public-Private Collaboration Perspective
Abstract: Smart city initiatives and expenditure into digital transformation of public services necessitates new forms of collaboration and organization, especially for the application of emergent digital technologies to enhance the efficiency of government practices and community services. This study investigates collaborative actions in the development of three platform-enabled smart city initiatives — elder care, urban management and cloud services — in Beijing, China from a private-public partnerships perspective, in order to enhance the quality of living and resource consumption in the city. In this short paper, we present preliminary analysis on an elder care smart city initiative, ongoing and future analysis. This research is significant to shed light into the mechanisms of private-public partnerships to sustain innovation ecosystems and inclusive growth in a smart city strategy. This study seeks to provide empirical contribution to nascent smart city research, in order to develop roadmaps for participatory action and collaborative problem solving.
Ibrahim Kholilul Rohman, Soumaya Ben Dhaou and Joao Marco. Blockchain-based Digital Currency and Financial Inclusion: Just a myth?
Abstract: Blockchain is a disruptive technology that is changing society in various aspects. Among the most emerging implementation of this technology is found in the financial sector with the proliferation of the private digital currencies or crypto-currencies. This paper elaborates three aspects (i) to illustrate both the positive and negative aspects of the private digital currencies that are currently emerged, (ii) to explain the central bank digital currency (CBDC) that is introduced as a counter policy against the private cryptocurrencies, (ii) to forecast the required technology allowing the system works based on different scenarios and thus to validate if the countries are ready with this massive transition. A supporting data comparing develop and developing countries are given to illustrate these three issues. We conclude that the introduction of the blockchain technology in financial sector should be valued and evaluated in a more thorough way. Moreover, based on the current and existing infrastructure deployment, the vision that this disruptive technology will mitigate financial inclusion in developing world is rather a myth.
Tiago Silva, António Tavares and Mariana Lameiras. 'Trendy' Cities: Exploring the adoption of different types of Social Media by Portuguese municipalities.
Abstract: By focusing exclusively on the Portuguese case and its 308 municipalities, the main question of this ongoing research paper is: What are the determinants of Social Media adoption by local government. Rather than usage levels of a particular Social Media, we examine why local governments adopt a particular online application. More concretely, we explore, with statistical analyses, the determinants for the adoption of different types of Social Media. Not only we look at three extremely popular Social Media (i.e. Facebook, Twitter and YouTube), but also possible alternatives to those, more popular, applications. Since these platforms have distinct natures and can serve diverse purposes, we examine to what extent aspects such as local government's commitment to transparency and participation, administrative capacity, media landscape, socio-demographic and economic factors can explain the adoption of a particular Social Media. The results show that, indeed, demographic characteristics and particularly administrative capacity are important factors for the adoption of less popular Social Media. Surprisingly, we also observe a geographical difference in municipalities' Social Media adoption, with the south, in this regard, being 'trendier', or more innovative, than the north.
Nele Leosk. Understanding the Development of e-Governance: A Study of the Relation between the Development of e-Governance, Institutions, Organizations, and Actors
Abstract: This paper examines the development of e-governance, that stands for the use of the Internet and information and communication technologies (ICTs) by governments to i) provide services, and ii) involve public in the policy making process. The main goal of the paper is to understand, basing on an extensive statistical analysis, how e-governance has developed over the past years in the OECD and EU member states between 2003 and 2016; and what has accounted for the different levels of e-governance in these countries. The findings of this large-scale analysis indicate that, generally, the level of e-governance can be explained institutional factors and, to some extent, by actors. Surprisingly though, political actors do not have a positive effect on the development of egovernance, and economic but also technological advancement do not seem to make a difference.
Mohammed Gharawi and Hashim Alneami. Compliance with Open Data Principles: A Longitudinal Content Analysis of the Saudi's National Open Data Platform in 2016 and 2018
Abstract: This study attempts to analyze the content of the National Open Data Platform (NODP) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in two time intervals with the aim of identifying the main developments occurred with regard to participants, available datasets and the aspects they cover, as well as the volume, quantity and quality of available data. The researchers attempted, through the study, to evaluate the applicability of the original eight principles of open data (OD) regarding data available on the Platform. The study concluded that the data that are now available through the NODP are timely, accessible, machine processable, non-discriminatory, and license-free. It also concluded that there are three OD principles that are not applied. These three principles relate to the data being complete, primary, and available in open formats. The study concluded with a set of recommendations that should enhance tendency towards implementing OD in the KSA.
More Ickson Manda and Soumaya Ben Dhaou. Responding to the challenges and opportunities in the 4th Industrial revolution
Abstract: The advent of the 4th industrial revolution promises significant social and economic opportunities and challenges which demand that governments respond appropriately in supporting the transformation of society. The purpose of this study is to understand the challenges confronting developing countries in the adoption of digital transformation agendas to leverage the social and economic benefits of the digital-driven 4th industrial revolution. The study is an interpretive case study that uses documentary evidence and a review of the literature as its primary method of collecting data. South Africa is used as a single case study of a developing country that has embraced digital transformation as a critical strategy in inclusive growth. In framing the study, the socio-technical perspective is adopted.
Ahmed Hachem, Ghada El Khayat, Hanan El Assar and Samar El Kasrawy. e-Collaboration of Government Actors to Support Participatory Tourism Planning in Egypt
Abstract: Egypt enjoys unique environmental features and tourism resources which distinguish it from many other countries. However, the advancement and prosperity of tourism depend not only on the tourism resources, but on the administrative capacity of the governmental tourism authorities that are able to exploit and manage these resources to achieve the objectives of tourism development with high efficiency and low cost.
The tourism planner works within a planning environment, which is characterized by uncertainty, complexity, volatility and ambiguity. This requires a large amount of information regarding all variables in the planning environment, both internally and externally. This study proposes to support the tourist planner using participatory planning, vertically and horizontally through the implementation of collaborative information systems that directly and indirectly support the tourism planner in the development of tourism plans and help in sharing information among all stakeholders effectively. Several successful international experiences implemented collaborative information systems in tourism planning at national and local levels, which contributed to providing a clear vision for the implementation process in the Egyptian context. This study relied on personal interviews with tourism planners in planning bodies at the national level as well as the planners at the local level of Alexandria governorate to assess the current situation of participatory planning in addition to evaluating the extent to which the planners accepted the collaborative information systems. The study identified factors that hinder the use of participatory planning tools to their full potential in Alexandria Governorate. However, in general, planners perceived collaborative information system as a tool to enhance the participatory tourism planning in Alexandria Governorate. The study proposed a framework and a structure necessary to have in place to enable success of participatory tourism planning relying on cooperative information systems in Alexandria governorate.

Louis Geoffroy-Terryn. Big Data Analytics and the temptation of Scoring: A cross-case analysis of legal and regulatory frameworks on the practice of ‘social’ scoring in influential jurisdictions.
Abstract: Big Data Analytics grants unprecedented depth of access and precision to assessing key determinants in the lives of persons - in their capacity as consumers, users and citizens. From a decision-maker’s perspective being it in the public or private sector, these assessments also allows for new levels of comparisons and benchmarking to be established. Among those, this paper focuses on the practice of scoring – or rating – of persons, in relation to information derived from Big Data Analytics. As the amount of data collected grows exponentially, and the precision and sophistication levels of automated predictions improves, new opportunities as well as challenges are identified. The vast majority of those however, are yet to be addressed from a legal and regulatory perspective. Among them lie concerns in relation to levels of privacy enjoyed by individuals; and ethical questions, related to the influence enjoyed as a result, by those able to compute and access such assessments. It is increasingly clear that technology in general, and automated predictions derived from Big Data Analytics in particular, may be used to very different ends, depending on objectives sought by decision makers. Whether it is in the hands of public or private actors, access to potentially sensitive information sourced from these analyses may lead undesirable outcomes. Legal and regulatory frameworks in relation to these usages differ greatly between jurisdictions. As research shows, these differences yield considerable impact, on the nature and structure of these assessments, their use in the decision-making process and the oversight imposed upon them, to mitigate risks and uphold rights. This paper explores key differences in three influential jurisdictions, and outlines respective tenets and their consequences on the practice of Social Scoring in decision-making processes.
Gofran Faroqi. The role of telecentre in developing entrepreneurship: A case study on Union Digital Centres in Bangladesh
Abstract: This paper evaluates the role of a telecentre project- the Union Digital Centres (UDC) in Bangladesh- in developing entrepreneurship among rural youths under Public-Private Partnership. Contrary to engaging qualified operators the UDC has employed local youths with limited computer and business skills and less ability to invest. Many operators earn very low and some run off the project leading to closure of centres. In this context understanding the issue of entrepreneurship attains significance for the sustainability of the project. Entrepreneurship is defined in terms of operator's income, his/her satisfaction on income and the level of investment. The study hypothesizes that factors responsible for entrepreneurship development include ICT and internet, services, clients' turnout, stakeholders involvement and experience of the operator. Based on an internet survey and interview of operators and a review of literature the study explores main issues of operation, stakeholders involvement and their roles in the UDC progress. It describes key features of entrepreneurship and its determinants. An application of a structural equation model supports the hypotheses validating that operator’s own initiative synergized with support from the government influence the development of entrepreneurship. It finds that the UDC bears potential to develop entrepreneurship among operators given they use a variety of equipment and better quality internet, provide a range of services to a greater volume of clients, receive stakeholder's support and demonstrate computer and managerial skills. The government’s role in implementation, training and monitoring of the project influences the process. However, the project suffers from a range of challenges from inadequate involvement of partners. Since deficiency in any partner’s role can affect the mission of entrepreneurship development, the authors suggests that the government must take the responsibility to engage relevant partners to convert UDC as an enterprise.
Ian McShane. Public-Private Partnerships in Municipal Wi-Fi: Optimising Public Value
Abstract: Public-private partnerships (PPP) are the dominant business model for the procurement and operation of public digital communication networks such as public Wi-Fi and IoT, technologies that play a significant role in providing public
internet access and managing urban systems. However, the voluminous critical literature on private sector provision of public infrastructure services pays little attention to these forms of communications infrastructure. This paper engages critically with broad claims that PPPs or similar contracting-out
arrangements risk capture of city governments by Big Tech through an empirical analysis of PPP models in the provision of municipal-level public Wi-Fi. Focussing on Australian examples, the paper argues for a nuanced view of this ‘capture’ hypothesis. The paper argues that the limited expertise and resources of
local government authorities (LGA), together with the regulatory complexity of the telecommunications field, weigh against direct LGA provision of public Wi-Fi. However, the paper draws on field research to highlight two concerns associated with the PPP model of public Wi-Fi provision. The first is the lack of
transparency and accountability relating to digital infrastructure procurement and network evaluation imposed by the commercial-in-confidence claims. The second concern is the limited attention shown by LGAs to questions of data access
when contracting private providers, subsequently limiting the capacity of those authorities to obtain and use network metadata for public good purposes. To address these concerns, the paper draws on the work of public management scholar Mark H Moore to discuss ways that the public value of PWF networks can be
articulated and optimised in PPP arrangements.