ICEGOV2019 Accepted Papers with Abstracts

Tagelsir Gasmelseid. Modeling AMLC Processes in Central Banks using a Hybrid Intelligent Infrastructure
Abstract: Money laundering has been connected with different financial and economic complications that challenge the realization of development goals. Being regarded as the most serious criminal activity in the era of electronic government, money laundering (ML) is taking different "shapes" and is affecting different sectors. The scale and magnitude of such complications differ across countries and regions depending on the relevance of the entire economic and political environment for committing illegal practices due to corruption and lack or weakness of controls. While it shows a trend of increase over years, there is a considerable difficulty in estimating the amount of only being laundered across the world, despite the efforts of international organizations to do so. Different initiatives and anti-money laundering frameworks have been developed and operationalized at national and international levels. The main focus of such initiatives tend to be made on enhancing the ability of financial and regulatory institutions to understand the main features and financial histories of their customers as a prerequisite for developing appropriate anti-money laundering control systems (AMLCSs). Current AMLCSs are challenged with different design, engagement and processing complications that warrant the use of hybrid and coupled technological settings and computational concepts. While the basic aim of such an infrastructure is to facilitate decision making in Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) and/or central Banks, it also aims at enhancing cooperation towards compacting money laundering activities and encouraging the concerned stakeholders (e.g., commercial banks and other users) to act as partners rather than restricting themselves to "compliance". Within the context of e-governments, the development and operationalization of hybrid infrastructures to model anti-money laundering processes looms very big.
Emily Rempel, Julie Barnett and Hannah Durrant. Contrasting views of public engagement on local government data use in the UK
Abstract: Government at all levels in the UK and around the world face increasing challenges in regulating and governing their own use of data and data technologies, including at the local level. At the same time publics are increasingly aware of and critical towards incidents of data misuse and unethical data technology development. One solution to addressing these socio-technical questions of good government data use is public debate and inclusion through public engagement. In order to empirically develop a base on which such public engagement could rest, our aim is to compare and contrast different views on public engagement on government data use in the UK We conducted a series of seven focus groups with government, technical, and non-technical publics on this topic. Transcripts from these focus groups were thematically analysed by group for common themes. All three groups expressed wariness towards increased data collection and monitoring, as well as a sense of criticism on whether local governments use data effectively in policy decision-making. In discussing their views of public engagement, the technical and government groups expressed concerns on the ‘public’ being data illiterate and all three groups imagined the ‘public’ as disinterested in data use and policy-making. In contrast, good public engagement was described as focusing both on the means and ends of policy-making with data, being influential on local government process, and offering multiple mechanisms of participation. In conclusion, while good public engagement is imagined as empowering and beneficial to publics and data technology development alike, participants struggled to imagine a public that would be interested in public engagement exercises. This suggests a first step in developing public engagement exercises on government data use within the UK is reflecting on the mechanisms that may lead to an actual or assumed disinterested and unaware public.
Reshma Agarwal and Vinay Thakur. Service Delivery Maturity Assessment
Abstract: United Nations has developed a four stage maturity model for measuring online service development consisting of Stage I: emerging information services, Stage II: enhanced information service, Stage III: transactional services and Stage IV: connected services. This paper has extended this framework further in order to obtain the maturity level score for individual eServices being provided by eGovernment.
The paper attempts to score each service delivery stage usually required in order to deliver the eService successfully like beneficiary selection, spreading awareness about the eService, accessibility, ease of use, beneficiary enrolment, authentication, payment modes, enquiry, workflow tracking, delivery of benefit and user feedback. This enables us to calculate a maturity score for each service delivery aspect and thus formulate overall maturity score for the eService.
The paper also tries to demonstrate the application of the proposed service delivery rating Metrics in order to determine the maturity score of an eService.
The purpose of the Service Delivery Rating Metrics is to provide a tool to the Government enterprise , to rate the quality of eServices provided by its member organization to the users
Galbaatar Lkhagvasuren. Ensuring rights of the data subject in non-EU countries
Abstract: Some concepts of legal protection of data subject first guaranteed by the Council of Europe Convention for the Protection of Individuals with Regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data ("Convention 108") in 1981. However, the Convention 108 lacked to stipulate rights of a data subject. Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union that was approved on 24 October 1995 has secured two particular rights of data subject, which are right of access to data and right to object data processing. Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council, which guarantees all rights of the data subject in European Union was adopted on 27 April 2016.

However, these rights of data subject that secured through above regulations are only applicable to the European Union, not to other countries. This article aims to identify the rights of data subjects in non-EU countries by thoroughly examining national legislations of such countries and compare them to the European Union. Based on the examination, the article attempts to propose potential ways of ensuring rights of the data subject in non-EU countries.
Su-Kit Tang, Rita Tse and In Man Song. Smart Green Tool for the Government: The Electronic Vehicle Identification in Management of Public Bus Services
Abstract: As the number of vehicles running on the road increase, the traffic control becomes a serious problem in many historical cities, like Macao. Public transportation would hardly run and manage. In this research project, we propose the Electronic Vehicle Identification (EVI), which is a smart device with low-energy Bluetooth connection that exchanges the vehicle information and allows external communication with other control systems. As an ID for vehicle, it can be uniquely identified a vehicle and communication with vehicle is allowed. To illustrate the correctness of EVI, we conducted an experiment by using a Bluetooth reader to connect to EVI to discover the movement of bus vehicle departing or arriving at the bus terminal. The result shows that the bus vehicles can be captured on the road effectively, which can be used to support the Macao traffic department in optimizing road resources, managing traffic and making development plan.
Ben Sta Hatem. Approach for Measuring the Quality and efficiency of Data in the Context of Smart Cities Strategy: Case Study of Transport System
Abstract: As a new form of sustainable development, the concept “Smart Cities” knows a large expansion during the recent years. It represents an urban model, refers to all alternative approaches to metropolitan ICTs case to enhance quality and performance of urban service. However, the smart cities based on distributed and autonomous information infrastructure contains millions of information sources that will be expected more than 50 billion devices connected by using IoT or other similar technologies in 2020. In Information Technology, we often need to process and reason with information coming from various sources (sensors, experts, models,). Information is almost always tainted with various kinds of imperfection: imprecision, uncertainty, ambiguity, we need a theoretical framework general enough to allow for the representation, propagation and combination of all kinds of imperfect information. The theory of belief functions is one such Framework. Real-time data generated from autonomous and distributed sources can contain all sorts of imperfections regarding on the quality of data e.g. imprecision, uncertainty, ignorance and/or incompleteness. Any imperfection in data within smart city can have an adverse effect over the performance of urban services and decision making. In this context, we address in this article the problem of imperfection in smart city data. We will focus on handling imperfection during the process of information retrieval and data integration and we will create an evidential database by using the evidence theory in order to improve the efficiency of smart city. The expected outcomes from this paper are 1) to focus on handling imperfection during the process of information retrieval and data integration 2) to create an evidential database by using the evidence theory in order to improve the efficiency of smart city. As experimentation we present a special case of modelling imperfect data in the Transport field. An evidential database will be built which will contain all the perfect and imperfect data. These data come from several Heterogeneous sources. Imperfect aspects in the evidential database expressed by the theory of beliefs.
Sushil Prakash and I Gunalan. Accelerating Government Digital Transformation in India- A Case Study
Abstract: Digital India is a flagship program of the Government of India with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. Under this broad vision, transforming the functioning of the government to provide governance and services on demand using digital technologies is a key focus area for the government. This transformation requires not only the restructuring and refocusing of existing programs to align them with the principles of Digital India but also the launching of new programs, all to be implemented in a synchronized manner. A need for a suitable implementation framework was keenly felt to achieve this objective plus the target to accelerate the progress of government digital transformation. This paper establishes, first through technical literature survey and through shared evidence from the experience of a few leading countries that it is necessary to develop the technology and skills capability as well as to adopt a suitable framework for implementation and evaluation of the digital transformation initiatives in the government. It then presents a structured, goal-based, data-centric framework designed for program management of the e-governance project portfolio of the States in India. In conclusion, the paper validates this successfully implemented framework to demonstrate that a structured framework can effectively monitor, evaluate and accelerate the country’s digital transformation process.
Vicente Pitogo. Commitment on data privacy towards e-governance: The case of local government units
Abstract: The proliferation of ICT in the government sector is a crucial tactic in achieving different dimensions of public trust and services, especially government offices and local government units (LGUs) are gearing toward e-governance as a way to manage and utilize ICT infrastructure. Moreover, in engaging ICT services, personal data and other critical information must be safeguarded and not exposed publicly. In the Philippines, data privacy act of 2012 (DPA 2012) was promulgated to vanguard sensitive information and data protection, and impose legal sanctions to any organization breached therein. This empirical study aims to explore LGUs on their commitment to data privacy, assess their level of compliance and examine factors that hinder their defiance. The method used is qualitative research in a case study technique, using a multiple case holistic design. Outcomes pattern matching is also used to triangulate records against expected patterns. Results show that before the enactment of DPA 2012, the LGUs under study are not compliant. However, after the passage and the national privacy commission (NPC) took action, a significant leap has observed. Determinants of compliance, such as deterrence, legitimacy and moral obligation and organizational commitment like administrator’s leadership and government governance skills and employee’s commitment constructs have compelling casual factors why LGUs are complying with the law. Upon further assessment, pressing concerns are also perceived, such as lack of awareness, wait-and-see attitude, and resource and time constraints. In sum, LGUs are trying to fast-track, overhaul or re-engineering their processes and operations, including ICT infrastructure acquisition, resource allocation, including qualified ICT personnel apportionment as compliance initiatives and commit themselves to full compliance towards the establishment of better government and e-governance.
Batzorig Chimegbat. An exploratory study of the accessibility of Mongolian legal information Website
Abstract: Getting the judicial information was challenging for citizens until 2006 in Mongolia. Mongolia pushed legal resources to move online because emerging Web technologies have impacted citizens’ perceptions of access to government information. As a result, the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs (MOJHA) has developed a Mongolian legal information website as a formal digital database of all statutes. However, citizens with disabilities have been excluded from having the benefit of online resources because of its inaccessible design and technology. Less attention has been paid to the accessibility of this website, even though there have been legal mandates. Thus, this study examines if the Mongolian legal information website is accessible or not for users with disabilities in compliance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 1.0 Priority 1 criteria. Primary pages of the website are substantially inaccessible for disabled customers according to the results of both automated and manual assessments. Eventually, the Mongolian legal information website must be accessible to cater to equal opportunities for all citizens. This paper presents the results of automated and manual evaluation of Mongolian legal information website.
Rajesh Sharma and Sanjog Ray. Exploring the Impact of Mobile Technology Adoption on Financial Sustainability of Telecenters: The case of India
Abstract: Developing countries, with limited ICT resources available, are heavily dependent upon Telecenters for delivery of e-Government services to citizens, especially in rural areas. As a result, success of e-Governance initiatives in these countries is largely dependent on the financial sustainability of the telecenters. Technology for delivery of e-Government services is gradually shifting from PC-based model to the mobile-based model. Using exploratory research methodology in context of Common Service Centers in India, this paper examines the impact of this technology shift and aims to understand the issues pertaining to financial sustainability of telecentres as mobile adoption increases. Our research suggest that it will be difficult for the CSCs to be sustainable in the future and we recommend that government should take steps towards helping the key telecenters stakeholders develop new capabilities and skills for a new role in the changing environment to retain their relevance and sustainability in the future.
Dipankar Sengupta and Nagesh Shastri. Digital Payments through PFMS - Facilitating digital inclusion and accelerating transformation to a ‘Digital Economy’
Abstract: In his budget speech, the Finance Minister, stated that the year, 2011-12 would be a transition towards a more transparent and result oriented economic management system in India. The Government would take major steps in placing the administrative procedures concerning taxation, trade and tariffs and social transfers on electronic interface, free of discretion and bureaucratic delays. In furtherance of these objectives and in compliance with the provisions of the IT Act, along with other related laws and recommendations made by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Public Finance Management System (PFMS) established itself as a safe, secure, efficient and robust payment platform for the Government of India (GoI). The system enabled the successful delivery of payment services from Government Treasuries and Program Implementing Agencies (PIA) into beneficiaries’ accounts with the capability that the executive, legislature, internal and external audit, and the citizen access all financial transactions pertaining to government expenditures. The system has expedited direct payments from paying units to citizens, government employees, contractors and other entities receiving payments, in facilitating paperless transaction in a secure environment, reducing overall cost and promoting green banking. The digitally signed e-pay orders are processed by the accredited banks to credit the beneficiary accounts through a bouquet of electronic payment instruments viz. ICBS (Intra Core Banking Solution) / NEFT (National Electronic Fund Transfer) / RTGS (Real Time Gross Settlement), AEPS (Aadhaar Enabled Payment System), NACH (National Automated Clearing House), etc. The Ministry of Finance has taken a big leap forward, with PFMS poised to develop as one of the largest financial management systems in the world, which would be critical in bringing about transformational accountability and transparency in financial management, promoting good governance.
Irene Azogu, Alexander Norta, Dirk Draheim and Ingrid Pappel. A Framework for the Adoption of Blockchain Technology in Healthcare Information Management Systems A Case Study of Nigeria
Abstract: The role of record-keeping and information sharing in the health sector cannot be overemphasized. More recently, there has been renewed interest in finding a solution to the issues pertaining to privacy of health records and how these records can be easily accessed by different healthcare providers in healthcare service delivery. Additionally, easy access to a patient’s health information is an important aspect of health service delivery, which should be regulated and monitored because of the sensitivity of the information. Current approaches adopted in many hospitals face challenges of missing files or records, insecure records, and also inaccessibility to patients’ health information by healthcare providers that are needed to make informed health decisions. In this paper, we propose a scalable framework that seeks to justify the adoption and recommendation of blockchain technology to address the issues of privacy, information sharing and record-keeping in the health sector. The paper uses case study research methodology and employs interviews and document review as methods of data collection.
Asaf Dori. Cyber Security and governance: Exploring theoretical and practical challenges
Abstract: Effectively managing cyber security (CS) is a significant challenge for governments and businesses as technological advancements accelerate as well as the growing interconnectedness of the global economy. Reports of data breaches and sabotage appear to be escalating as more stakeholders are exposed to cyber-risks, exposing regulatory gaps and governance failures. Notwithstanding the significant interest directed towards government strategies and board level governance of CS witnessed over the past decade, significant uncertainty remains about how CS can be effectively governed in theory and practice. To address this uncertainty, the overarching aim of this research is to develop a deeper understanding about how CS governance is experienced and constituted in practice. Much of the research to date has been based on large-scale industry surveys that are limited in terms of providing insights into context. In this paper, an overview of the research design is provided, and specifically the findings from phase one, stage one of the research is reported on involving the potential of a socio-spatial perspective. The goal is to identify the research imperatives for the next stage of the research into cybersecurity governance.
Ajay Adala. Convergence of Technology, Governance and Public Policy towards Sustainable Development: CRIG Framework
Abstract: Technology, Governance and Public Policy are known to exist in some form or the other, though not as advanced as they are today. Technology, which was largely concentrated to research and manufacturing sectors earlier, is now being commonly used and well understood. Governance, which is a well-defined subject, is now being redefined to include citizen-centricity and user-friendliness. Public Policy, which always was an integral part of Government, is now being supported by new thinking and innovative analysis. Seldom these three areas viz., Technology, Governance and Public Policy work in tandem, which calls for the need to converge them with an aim to achieve sustainable development. Implementation of e-Governance projects is one such strategy. However, e-Governance is not an end by itself. The need is to form collaborative unions between Technology, Governance and Public Policy arises which would create a welfare state and subsequently guide towards sustainable development. An attempt has been made in this direction to form collaborative unions, identify their objectives and how these objectives will help in creating a welfare state and achieving sustainable development. A framework has been designed which may help in better visualization and understanding of proposed convergence,.
Aki Nagano. Thinking About Industrial Revolutions in Systems Theory - Moving Towards the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Abstract: A sense of stagnation has been spreading over globally, causing political frictions, discrimination, poverty, gender issues, economic disparity, and so on. It is important for the government, politicians, policymakers, and researchers to show positive visions for our society. There are, however, some signs of the future, such as the advent of the fourth industrial revolution. This study addresses how our society co-evolves with the fourth industrial revolution by analyzing the transformation and adaptation mechanisms of the past industrial revolutions. The applied method is social systems theory, which consists of world system and innovation system. Results show that the self-organizing systems of past industrial revolutions were generated by a strong desire, ideologies, and a national interest in overtaking hegemony. Nowadays, however, no single country has sufficient power to direct global leadership. Thus, in the era of the fourth industrial revolution, the world system tends to be multipolar in its approach to dealing with globalization and collective security. Regional powers will likely lead the fourth industrial revolution under each system. Conversely, this study suggests that good financial and educational investments promote qualified innovation ecosystems. Open science and education for technology will accelerate information technologies because it will cultivate capacity development among people who were unable to receive enough education. They are undeveloped for human capital. These will generate dynamic forces to stimulate self-organizing functions within the social system.
Morten Meyerhoff Nielsen. Tackling identity management, service delivery, and social security challenges: technology trends and partnership models
Abstract: Today, 1.1 billion people have no formal identity. A full 50% of the world population does not have access to social security. At the same time, the number of 60+ year-olds will double to 2 billion by 2050, and the high levels of youth unemployment will limit the funds available for public services. Technology-driven efficiency and effectiveness in service production and delivery is part of the solution to these challenges and the Sustainable Development Goals. Secure and reliable identity management is a key enabler in the digital transformation of public service delivery, but many countries still battle. This paper highlights a number of technology trends in electronic identity management and partnership models for efficient and effective service delivery. The paper finds that digital identity and signature can provide cost-efficient, easy, secure, and personal service access. While there are strengths and weaknesses to all technical solution, technology is secondary when compared to the completeness, reliability, and quality of data. The cooperation between authorities facilitates efficient and effective identity management, and partnerships with the banking and telecom sectors for development, maintenance, and rollout can be especially beneficial.
Toomas Kästik. The Impact of Digital Governance on the Business Environment: the Case of Estonian Tax and Customs Board.
Abstract: Digital governance offers tools for reducing transaction costs and compliance costs in the interactions among public, private and third sector as well as between individuals and government institutions. This research explores the effects of the digital services of Estonian Tax and Customs Board on enterprises that have an influence on the Estonian economy. The study also investigated improvements and developments expected by the enterprises in order to increase efficiency by reducing the administrative burden.
The results of analysis indicate that usage of digital governance has a remarkable effect on raising the efficiency of enterprises by lessening the administrative burdens. Particular tax filing digital services can be executed by using on average 6.1 times less time compared with the same service being used in traditional manner. The real time economy in taxation has great potential to deliver positive outcomes, although attention should to be drawn involving the significant actors, when implementing the innovation.
Mohamed H. Farah and Alvedi Sabani. Towards Sustainable Development Goals: A Literature Review and a Conceptual Framework of Governance Issues in Africa
Abstract: This paper presents a systematic literature review of governance issues in Africa. The study focuses on the evaluation of governance for sustainable development. This study contributes to the interdisciplinary research of governance. The study finds that governance can be activated by learning from the interdisciplinary vanguard. Additionally, this study proposes a working definition of governance as an active and sustainable process where governance functions as an ambidextrous steering mechanism. From the practical perspective, the paper proposes a conceptual framework to better understand the impact of key issues and challenges on African governments’ capacity to coordinate governance decision making. Furthermore, the recommendations of this research would assist policymakers in Africa to better address governance challenges and work towards achieving the United Nations 2030 agenda for sustainable development goals and the development of e-governance in the future.
Athreya Mukunthan and Govinda Agarwal. JAM: A Digital, Economic & Social Revolution
Abstract: In the 21st century, digitalization and data are radically revamping the government-citizen connect globally. To harness this immense power, India initiated the “Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile” or “JAM” model which aimed at redefining the manner in which Government benefits reach the common man. Leakages from the system, identification of beneficiaries in such a vast and diverse country, corruption and the last mile recipients not receiving their due from the government were major challenges Indian governance faced for several decades. This paper details the Indian experience of countering these problems using technology, digitalisation and the power of financial inclusion. The paper explores the history and background in which the JAM revolution was unleashed and the impact and challenges during implementation.

The process was three prong. First, the unbanked were brought under the formal banking net with a large-scale free-of-cost bank account opening scheme titled Prime Minister Jan Dhan Yojna (PMJDY). Second, every resident was given a biometric-coded unique identification called the Aadhaar card. Lastly, given that mobile phones have become a primary tool for communication, it was linked to their bank accounts and Aadhaar numbers, to directly deliver government subsidies and benefits into the accounts of the people electronically. This cut out the middlemen, reduced leakages and resulted in savings of Rs. 17,000 crore for the government annually. This initiative was a big social revolution at the micro level. More than 30 crore bank accounts were opened and more than 50% of them were in the name of women. Analysis reveal that this initiative reduced gender inequality and income-based disparities in the banking sector in the nation.

The paper also identifies some challenges JAM faces such as lack of large-scale digital and physical infrastructure, digital illiteracy, rural-urban internet penetration divide and some structural issues the Indian system faces. Possible solutions and way forward has also been explored. In a nutshell, the paper dwells into the past, present and future of the digital revolution that JAM brought upon in India, its impact on the government and the society at large, the challenges it faces and what the future entails.
Ajay Dutta, Prof. M. Syamala Devi and Dr. Manish Arora. Design of UID based Online Census System for Electronic Governance Applications
Abstract: Census is the citizen socio-economic data collection process for the preparation of the citizen database. e-Governance refers to the delivery of State and Central Government information and services using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to citizens, businesses and Government departments. In the paper, Unique Identification based e-Census system is proposed. Based on existing census system in India, various modules of the proposed e-Census system are designed such as online data capturing, integrating census system with Aadhar database, census data monitoring and utilization of online census database for various e-Governance applications. Relevant user interfaces are also designed for the system. The proposed system has many advantages including a dynamic updating of birth and death records, utilization of e-Census data for the next census in addition to reducing the manual intervention. It is demonstrated that e-Census data can be utilized more effectively for various decision-making applications such as opening educational institutions and granting unemployment allowance. This is possible as online census data is linked to Government organizations through web services and all the required data is available online. It is concluded that the online census system not only can replace the manual system but also can allow efficient and effective e-Governance.
Paul Kariuki, Lizzy Oluwatoyin Ofusori and Marialauda Goyayi. E-GOVERNMENT AND CITIZEN EXPERIENCES IN SOUTH AFRICA: ETHEKWINI METROPOLITAN CASE STUDY
Abstract: As the desire for personalized interactions with government increases, agencies and departments are exploring efforts to better deliver citizen- and business-focused digital government. In recent years, government initiatives have helped agencies make substantial strides in improving citizen experiences of local government. The intention of this paper is to discuss the challenges that the EThekwini Metro is experiencing in translating its engagement with its citizens digitally. This qualitative study collected its data through interviews with ordinary citizens living in the metro and its environs. It also conducted key-informant interviews with selected municipal officials on the subject. Thirty interviews were conducted, two-thirds with ordinary citizens and a third with senior municipal functionaries. The study found that there was a low priority within the metro that is given towards e-government due to a lack of political will at the IT department to offer services digitally.
Moreover, it also found that citizens generally did not make great use of e-government services mainly because of limited access to the internet, coupled with low levels digital knowledge. Additionally, the study found that even though there are elements of digital services, only those citizens that could afford data could enjoy digital services. This study shows that citizens who cannot afford data are excluded from municipal e-services. Since the metro is unable to provide free data or WIFI to citizens, it has limited capacity to increase citizen participation. The quantitative data was used to collect demographic data.

This article argues the metro must make internet access possible for all citizens irrespective of their socio-economic conditions to improve citizens’ experience of government services as envisioned in the government’s citizens services charter. The study recommends that data must be made affordable and the metro’s political and administrative leadership must act with urgency in making this possible for citizens.
Alvedi Sabani, Hepu Deng and Vinh Thai. Evaluating the Performance of E-Government in Indonesia: A Thematic Analysis
Abstract: This paper evaluates the performance of e-government from the viewpoint of citizens in Indonesia. Six critical perspectives including availability, efficiency, information security, information quality, service functionality and transparency are adopted for investigating the performance of e-government in Indonesia. The study reveals that the overall performance of e-government in Indonesia is unsatisfactory. Such unsatisfactory performance is mainly due to the low-level of availability, the substandard quality of information, the unreliability of e-government services, and the vulnerability on the information security. From the practical perspective, this research provides the Indonesian government and public organizations with relevant suggestions on how the performance of e-government can be improved. Such suggestions can lead to the formulation of better strategies and policies for the continuous development of e-government in Indonesia.
Rosa Angelica Sanchez Tortolero, Jean Carlo Marquez Gonzalez and Guy Alberto Vernaez. Participation and Citizen Empowerment platform for e-governance: Communal Integration System (SINCO)
Abstract: The Governance concept reaches an important place in the theoretical debates and political practices because it introduces new forms on policy formulation and managing, making it possible to redefine the way of participation and new proposals to overcome bureaucratic barriers of the representative democracy. The main challenge is to generate more cooperative relations between government and society. Through the implementation of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), we can generate new ways to establish e-governance, which can draw new possibilities to achieve substantive forms of participation. This is the purpose of the Communal Integration System (SINCO by its acronym in spanish) which started operating in 2104 and works as a communication bridge between the institution and citizens organized in communities. It was initially developed as a tool for information management, but the platform subsequently evolved as a direct communication system due to the dynamics and demands of the users, which complies with the principles of transparency, co-responsibility and accountability. In this transformation, the development of the system adopted the Citizen-Centered Design, to generate an appropriation and empowerment of the tool. Through a literacy review and the presentation of the methodology and results of the usability research[febres], this paper analyses the limits and possibilities of SINCO as a platform for participation and citizen empowerment that can generate the conditions forestablishing e-governance in accordance to the community’s needs.
Saidarshan Bhagat and Padmaja Joshi. Evaluation of Accessibility and Accessibility Audit Methods for e-Governance Portals
Abstract: Success of a service lies in its usage and it's accessibility is extremely vital to increase the reach of a service. This paper covers a study of all-inclusiveness of some of the online services provided by the government of India. In addition to finding out the coverage of the online service to all types of users, the work also focuses on the adequacy of methods of accessibility verification and recommends the appropriate testing. In this paper, the solutions and recommendations are also given to make online services more accessible. The study has also helped to evolve the research areas to overcome accessibility concerns mainly related to security.
Seemantinee Sengupta, Deepak Misra, Marut Chaudhary and Omprakash Aggarwal. Role of Technology in Success of Rural Sanitation Revolution in India
Abstract: Swachh Bharat Mission – Gramin (SBM-G), translated in English as Clean India Mission - Rural, is a nation-wide campaign in India that aims to achieve universal sanitation coverage by October 02, 2019. Launched by Prime Minister of India on October 02, 2014, this programme is being implemented by the state governments under financial assistance and technical support of Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MDWS), Government of India, which is the nodal agency for its implementation.

SBM-G is one of the largest behaviour change programme in the world, and the evidence shows it is on track to achieve its objectives. Sanitation coverage in rural India has increased from less than 40 per cent in 2014 to over 94 per cent by the end of fourth year of the programme, as more than 500 million people have adopted safe sanitation and given up open defecation.

Political will and leadership, and the strategy to emphasise on sustainability, differentiated SBM-G from previous sanitation programmes in India. An equally important contributor to the success of the programme, has been the effective use of technology during its various stages of implementation. Execution of the programme has been monitored and evaluated through a web based e-Governance solution (http://sbm.gov.in). Up to date information about 157 million beneficiaries and status of their household toilet facilities made available by the SBM-G database, formed the foundation that enabled all participating stakeholders to monitor and evaluate the progress in an efficient, effective and transparent manner. Social media and digital technologies have also been innovatively utilized in creating a mass cleanliness movement by engaging citizens, disseminating information, and organizing and managing all field level activities.

This experience paper describes how ICT was used to support the implementation of SBM-G. It also attempts to highlight key lessons in use of technology for other similar programmes, globally.
Ganesh Khadanga, Kabita Roy Das, Prashant Kumar Mittal and Deepak Chandra Misra. Urban amenities in Rural Areas – National Rurban Mission (NRuM)
Abstract: National Rurban Mission (NRuM), Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) is implementing a comprehensive web based IT system (http://rurban.gov.in/rurbansoft), with the help of NIC for effective management of implementation and operations of NRuM. It ensures organized development of the clusters through Integrated Cluster Action Plans (ICAPs) and Detailed Project Reports (DPR). The mission aims to create 300 such 'Rurban Clusters' over the next 3 years, across the country with about 100 Rurban clusters approved every year. It is an attempt to make our rural areas socially, economically and physically sustainable regions. The Mission strives to strengthen rural areas by providing economic, social and infrastructure amenities, thus leading to sustainable and balanced regional development in the country. It will develop a cluster of villages that preserve and nurture the essence of rural community life with focus on equity, and inclusiveness, without compromising with the facilities perceived to be essentially urban in nature, thus creating a cluster of Rurban villages. The same will be achieved through the convergence with the existing scheme in States and the Critical Gap Funding (CFG) by central Government. The MIS facilitates in capturing the ICAP and DPR by States through States Nodal Agency (SNA) of different States. The State level executive Committee (SLEC) approves the ICAPs and DPRs. The MIS is developed in open source platform (PHP, Apache, PostgreSQL) with fully integrated workflow and is operational in 226 clusters. The system is also facilitated with geotagging of the works through Mobile Application and payments through the EAT (Expenditure, Advance and Transfer) module of PFMS (Public Financial Management System) and a web enable GIS System, using the WMS web services of NIC.
Gayatri Pandurangi, Deepak Chandra Misra, Aditya Atluri and Radha Krishna K. Bhuseva: Digital Transformation in Land Administration towards better Citizen Services
Abstract: Indian Government has embarked on a number of digital initiatives. One such revolutionary project is Land Hub or BhuSeva that provides all land related services through a Single Window Platform (SWP) by integrating all the departments and institutions that deliver land services. This initiative was envisioned in the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in India. This poster paper focuses on important elements of the project; strategic approach, implementation methodology using Enterprise Architecture (EA) framework and state-of-the-art technologies.
Demetrios Sarantis, Soumaya Ben Dhaou, Charalampos Alexopoulos, Alexander Ronzhyn, Gabriela Viale Pereira and Yannis Charalabidis. The Evolving e-Governance Curriculum: A Worldwide mapping of Education Programs
Abstract: From the demand side, the need to build e-Governance capacities and expertise is increasing and requires more and more sophisticated knowledge and competencies to fulfil the stakeholders’ needs. The e-Governance profession and skills needs are also becoming more diverse and more specialized.
From the supply side, we can also witness a growing interest in the e-Governance learning and programs worldwide at different level. However the programs offered are often not well aligned adapting neither to the government’s, nor to the public service needs. The e-Governance curriculum is a key success factor to reduce the gap. It serves as a base of knowledge for a large number of graduates that participate in government digital transformation activities. Within academic and practitioners’ communities, there have been constant discussions about the content of the e-Governance curriculum.
The objective of this research is to identify and analyse the current situation in e-Governance training worldwide and provide a path forward for future e-Governance program relative curriculum development.
For this purpose, the authors applied a systematic secondary data review method to examine the existing e-Governance programs and draw an e-Governance education mapping worldwide. The research establishes the current baseline of e-Governance curricula and describes their fundamental aspects.
Information provided in this article should be valuable to the e-Governance educators and curriculum designers, as well as to the e-Governance practitioners, to better understand the foundational knowledge transmitted to e-Governance graduates.
Vijaya Uthaman and Dr.Vasanthagopal Ramankutty. Service Quality of e-Governance Services through Common Service Centres (OSQ-CSC) in India: A Study Using Structural Equation Modeling
Abstract: This study determines the dimensions for overall service quality of common service centres (OSQ-CSC) in India based on the perception of the beneficiaries.
Jorge Prego, Jimena Hernández and Matías Jackson. Building a framework for Trust Services in Uruguay
Abstract: This paper explores the path followed by Uruguay in the consolidation of a digital identification framework. The main objective followed by the regulatory entity was to provide legal equivalence between physical presence and digital identification as well as compatibility with international standards. The essay will serve as an input for other countries looking for upgrading their electronic signature framework.
Alexander Kosenkov, Ingrid Pappel and Dirk Draheim. On Existing Trends towards Creation of a Holistic Socio-technical Approach to e-Governance
Abstract: The modern world is actively changing through implementation of information-communication technologies (ICTs), almost all spheres of human activity are experiencing transformation under their impact. Still digitalization of governance and public administration, implementation of e-governance are challenging domains of transformation for multiple reasons, both from theoretical and practical perspectives. Nor multiple positive cases of e-governance implementation, nor huge budgets can ensure success in these spheres and the more researchers are trying to dig into the topic the more complex these spheres seem to become. In the last two decades e-governance researchers have created tremendous corpus of literature, which provides a reliable basis for outlining holistic and universal approach to e-governance that is in such a high demand today. In this paper we would like to basically describe our vision of such an approach that could order existing taxonomical, conceptual and ontological developments and methodological problems in e-governance field. In perspective this approach can be used as a reliable basis for theoretical and practical developments in e-governance and public administration digitalization.
Amal Benrjab and Sehl Mellouli. Artificial Intelligence in Smart Cities: Systematic Literature Network Analysis
Abstract: The adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) has recently gained
increasing attention in the smart cities context. Given the
relevance of this topic, the aim of this paper is to conduct a
literature review to investigate the role of AI in the different
sectors of smart cities. The methodology used in this study
combines the systematic literature review in order to identify the
most relevant studies, and the citation network analysis to unfold
the dynamics of the field under study. The results of this research
show not only the importance of this technology that plays a key
role in several applications within a smart city but also the
challenges that it brings to cities and to citizens.
Oleksii Konashevych and Marta Poblet. Blockchain Anchoring of Public Registries: Options and Challenges
Abstract: Governments across the world are testing different uses of the blockchain for the delivery of their public services. Blockchain hashing—or the insertion of data in the blockchain (anchoring)—is one of the potential applications of the blockchain in this space. With this method, users can apply special scripts to add their data to blockchain transactions, ensuring both immutability and publicity. Blockchain hashing also secures the integrity of the original data stored on central governmental databases. This paper starts by analysing possible scenarios of hashing on the blockchain and assesses in which cases it may work and in which it is less likely to add value to a public administration. Second, the paper also compares this method with traditional digital signatures using PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) and discusses standardisation in each domain. Third, it also addresses issues related with concepts such as “distributed ledger technology” and “permissioned blockchains.” Finally, it raises the question of whether blockchain hashing is an effective solution for electronic governance, and concludes that its value is controversial, even if it is improved by PKI and other security measures. In this regard, we claim that governments need to identify pain points in governance in the first place, and then consider the trade-offs of the blockchain as a potential solution versus other alternatives.
Yumei Chen, Yingxin Huang, Kangchen Li and Luis F. Luna-Reyes. Dimensions and Measurement of City Resilience in Theory and in Practice
Abstract: Current trends on urbanization and concerns on the frequency of natural disasters have promoted increased interest in the concept of City Resilience among Smart City scholars and other researchers in Urban Studies. Cities with strong resilience have a strong ability to adapt to disturbances. A key research issue involves the development of frameworks to better understand and measure the levels of resilience in a city. This article explores the dimensions and measurement of city resilience. Using the multiple cases study method and qualitative research, we identify main topics in the plans of these three cities, comparing them to the main domain categories identified in the city resilience literature: social resilience, economic resilience, community capital, institutional resilience, infrastructure resilience and environmental resilience. Our findings suggest some similarities and differences between practice and theory. First, infrastructure and institutional resilience are generally considered as the most popular indicator. Second, every dimension of resiliency includes several sub-dimensions in the resilience framework, but some sub-dimensions are not mentioned in the resilience plans of the three cities identified as case studies. Thirdly, the practice of these cities shows that in social resilience, the decision-makers should pay more attention to education and equity, public health services and social services and well-being, then in economic resilience, we should emphasize economic diversity, employment and economic recovery. A revised resilient city measurement model is suggested in the end of the paper.
Daniel Muthee and Johnson Masinde. UTILIZATION OF MOBILE PHONE AND THE ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS ON UNIVERSITY AND GOVERNMENT SERVICES: A CASE OF POST GRADUATE STUDENTS AT KENYATTA UNIVERSITY, KENYA.
Abstract: This study investigated access and usage of mobile phones by postgraduate students. Mobile phone technology has greatly contributed to the quick access and sharing of information in the contemporary world. However, the issue of integrity in the usage of mobile phone remains a paradox. The data was collected using a questionnaire that was administered to 165 post graduate students in the Schools of Education and Business. The respondents were purposely selected because the researchers were interested in post graduate students working in government institutions and departments. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. The results indicated that mobile phone usage for information sharing and research is very high. All the students sampled used mobile phones to access, share, and search information since all of them had smart phones. It was noted that the University lacked a policy on use of mobile phones to access and read educational materials. Interestingly, it was noted that mobile phone is a handy technology for most examination malpractices and dishonesty. The study highly recommends policy issues on usage of mobile technology by students particularly in enhancing learning and information sharing as well as maintaining sanctity of examinations and individual student integrity.
Muhammad Priandi, Walter Fernandez and M.S. Sandeep. The Role of Context in IS Research: A Review of E-government Research in Developing Economies
Abstract: In this paper, we respond to recent calls for more attention to context in information systems (IS) research. We argue that considering context is of crucial importance when researching IS implementations in developing economies, especially those involving e-government implementations. Using a thematic literature review, we identify four properties of context which have been referenced in research of e-government implementations in developing economies. The paper joins previous calls for increased context-awareness in IS research by drawing attention to the merit of emphasizing properties of context. Future e-government research should consider pursuing discovery of more context-specific mechanisms from developing economies setting, which will enrich the understanding of implementation of information and communication technology for development (ICT4D).
Rachel Fischer and Beverley Malan. The Development of the Digital Wellness Toolkit
Abstract: The advent of Information and Communication Technologies have brought with it numerous advantages and disadvantages. One area of concern relates to wellbeing in a digital environment: issues regarding cyber safety and cyber safety, although prevalent, are not frequently addressed in school curricula in South Africa. The African Centre of Excellence for Information Ethics (ACEIE) contributed to the existing tertiary curriculum on Information Ethics at the Information Science Department, University of Pretoria. Faced by a lack of training material for schools and communities on cyber safety and security, and drawing from its experience in the tertiary environment, the ACEIE developed the Digital Wellness Toolkit. This toolkit, developed in collaboration with INTEL Education, UNESCO and the South African government, seeks to address this gap on four levels: pre-primary age; primary school; secondary school and local community training. In so doing, the role of the South African government is underscored, since by creating and disseminating training programmes on the ethics of emerging technologies, it realises its responsibility towards eGovernance. This paper provides an overview of the history of the development of the Digital Wellness Toolkit together with a discussion of the theoretical and methodological approaches to the design of the various Digital Wellness curricula which form part of the toolkit.
Paul Henman and Timothy Graham. Towards a taxonomy of government webportals: an international comparison of portal hyperlink networks
Abstract: Government web portals are central to governments’ web strategy, yet their rationale, design and effectiveness is scarcely studied. This paper comparatively examines the hyperlink structure of the government web portals of Australia, Canada, France, UK and USA. Websites are conceptualized as operating within web and informational ecologies in which governments seek to position their portal at the center. This paper investigates the different ways governments approach this task by analyzing the various sizes and shapes of the portal in terms of webpages and hyperlinks, and the makeup of webpages externally linked from the portal. This research highlights different design approaches between information repository portals and referral portals, as well as considerable differences in the presence of social media platforms for the operation of online government, revealing an interactive webportal design. The paper provides the basis for future portal research and assessment of the effectiveness of different portal designs.
Alemayehu Tsegaye and Lemma Lessa. Evaluation of the Public Value of E-Government Services in Ethiopia: Case of Court Case Management System
Abstract: Electronic government (e-government) refers to the use of information and communication technologies to help public organizations more accessible, productive, responsive and responsible. Extant studies confirmed that organizations granted trust and goodwill from the public or the customer through the e-government services delivery seeing that the public value is settled. However, research conducted in this area focused on the initiatives, sustainability, and success of the e-government project. Although the public value of e-government services is the emerging concept and it requires adequate research, in the knowledge of the researcher, there is no research conducted in Ethiopia. The objective of this study is to evaluate the public value of e-government services and to identify challenges associated with it. Specifically, it aims to identify the evaluation framework from extant literature, perceive the status of e-Government services public value, find the challenges associated with meeting the public value of the e-government services in Federal Supreme Court and forward possible recommendations to address challenges associated with e-government services in attaining public value. To achieve these objectives, both qualitative and quantitative methodologies were employed on survey data. Both quantitative and qualitative findings were triangulated for better investigating the public value of e-government services. The revised framework consists of three main dimensions: (i) delivery of quality public services, (ii) the effectiveness of public organizations, and (iii) achievement of socially desirable outcomes were applied for evaluation. The response from 35.77% respondents confirms that quality public service delivery achievement but 64.23% disregarded. The answer from 33% participants revealed that the public organization is effective despite 77% respondents not accepted. The reaction from 25% participant assured that socially desirable outcome is achieved through e-government services while 75% said not. In general, 31.25% respondents agreed on public value of e-government services achievement whereas the rest 68.75% said it is not achieved. This leads to the development of some specific recommendation for improving the public value of e-government in FSC. The study has a contribution to the e-government services public value research domain from both the theoretical and practical perspectives. From the theoretical perspective, it demonstrates the applicability of the concept of public value for evaluating the performance of e-government. From the practical perspective, it presents an investigation of the public value of e-government. Such an investigation provides the stakeholders with a realistic assessment of the overall performance of e-government in FSC. It helps to the development of some specific recommendations for enhancing and improving the public value of e-government. Such findings are not only significant for the continuous development of e-government services in FSC but also for meeting the expectation and demand of the customers.
G. Anthony Giannoumis, Sveinung Legard, Sissel Hovik and Cristina Paupini. Design and Use of New Media in Urban Development Processes
Abstract: This on-going research paper reports initial evidence gathered as part of the Democratic Urban Development in the Digital Age (DEMUDIG) project, which aims to investigate citizens' use of the internet and new media as channels for participation in urban development processes, with a focus on city governments' efforts to promote and make use of citizen initiatives through such channels. This on-going research paper focuses specifically on the new media platforms used to establish interactive dialogues with local communities. Preliminary results show that Oslo, Melbourne, and Madrid have used new media platforms for engaging public participation in a variety of urban development processes. Local districts in Oslo have begun to experiment with using social networking sites in conjunction with more traditional forms of digital communication such as email and SMS. In contrast, Melbourne has adopted Your City Your Voice, where citizens can engage with local government through surveys. Finally, the Decide Madrid platform has allowed citizens to directly impact area-based initiatives in the city and local districts of Madrid. The results additionally indicate that Oslo has relied to a greater extent than Melbourne or Madrid on mainstream new media platforms – i.e., Facebook.
Muktikam Hazarika and Joya Chakraborty. Women in Local E-Governance: A Case Study of Assam
Abstract: Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are understood to have distinctive social consequences. It is one of the most powerful forces that shape twenty-first century. Considering the huge prospective of ICTs in knowledge society, a recent trend particularly in case of developing countries like India is that the governments are attempting to provide internet access and improve online infrastructure for citizens. However, a wide range of literature goes on to suggest that the poorest and disadvantaged communities in the world include the women folk and that there is a certain and clear existence of ‘gender divide’ in the ICT arena. This doctoral research paper tries to describe the researcher’s ongoing qualitative research work in Assam- a state in India, concerning the access and use of ICTs by grassroots women government functionaries; their issues and challenges in using ICTs and perceptions about employing ICTs towards social change. The paper highlights the impressions of the researcher from the qualitative field work carried out in four districts of Assam. The aim of the doctoral study is to identify the existing gap in ICT policy and the local context of Assam from a gendered perspective.
Charalampos Alexopoulos, Gabriela Viale Pereira, Yannis Charalabidis and Lorenzo Madrid. A Taxonomy of Smart Cities Initiatives
Abstract: Governments are required by the increasing urbanisation to provide new and innovative services. Information and Communication Technologies have emerged as key drivers in the redefinition of the city mechanism and its relationship with citizens. In the newest paradigms, cities constitute an environment for implementing innovative actions and promoting the contribution of many stakeholders. Several studies analyse the "smart city" as an ecosystem based on the triple helix model while recently, research has suggested the quadruple helix model in which community works alongside with business, research and government in the new economy. The aim of this study is to review the smart cities concept, to map the implemented initiatives and to propose a living taxonomy of smart cities developments. The suggested taxonomy consists of ten primary areas and 85 developments. This framework is a first attempt to introduce the concept of open citizen and apply in practice the quadruple helix approach in order to engage multi-stakeholders on the definition of smart cities.
Fernando Kleiman. Engaging Governments in Open Data Policies through Gaming
Abstract: Open data can be used to increase the transparency and accountability of governments. Yet, opening of data is still limited. One important reason originates from the limited willingness of public servants to open data. The typical risk-averse environment of the public sector has the prevalence of a culture emphasizing the barriers of open data over its advantages. Furthermore, issues like the unclear trade-offs between public values, the fear of violating privacy, lack of knowledge of possible measures to avoid (or reduce) risks results in lower willingness to open data. The main problem addressed by this research is how to change bureaucrat’s willingness to open more data by developing and testing a mobile digital game. The game will be based on causal mechanisms, which are hypothesized cause-effect relationships that can result in higher levels of willingness to open data. An interactive simulated and safe environment (game) will allow civil servants to experience new open-data routines and should result in the behavioral change.
Irfanullah Arfeen and Adil Ali Shah. E-Health in IDPs Health Projects in Pakistan
Abstract: Almost all the developed countries have adopted E-health system and Pakistan is also one of these countries where E-health is now being partially implemented. In addition to this implementation the need of the day is to implement E-health in Health Projects such as Internally Displaced People (IDP) Camps to make the projects even more successful and result oriented. Not many studies have been conducted to find the rationale behind E-Health system not being adopted in IDPs Health Projects in Pakistan. This research is an attempt to fill the gap and identify the challenges due to which E-health is not yet adopted in Health Projects. The data gathered through the questionnaire was then structured and regression analysis with significant test was conducted to identify the factors that contribute in non implementation of E-health system in IDPs Health Projects. The result shows that the healthcare staffs are willing to adopt E-health system but due to lack of ICT at the Project Implementation Unit level such E-health system could not be implemented. Therefore in order to make Health Projects more successful using E-health system basic ICT facilities should be provided at Project Implementation Unit.
Lemma Lessa. Sustainability Framework for E-Government Success: Feasibility Assessment
Abstract: E-government improves and more importantly transforms the public sector. To take advantage of such benefits, developing countries have been investing a lot on e-government initiatives in spite of their limited budget. Sustaining successful e-government initiatives is of utmost importance especially for developing countries to let them attain what they aspire for in transforming government functions. Extant literature, however, show that there are only few success stories whereas majorities of those efforts end up in a failure. Literature also reveal that sustainability aspect of e-government initiatives is a neglected topic and calls to extend e-government research beyond success. The research tries to explore two concepts (e-government success and sustainability) in an integrated manner and is aimed at exploring the potential relationship between the two concepts. In order to achieve this objective, the research was conducted in two steps. First, a conceptual framework is proposed based on a multiple exploratory case study based on four G2G cases selected from rural areas in Ethiopia. Second, feasibility of the proposed conceptual framework is assessed in another related setting.
Focusing on the second step of the research, this paper looks at a G2C Court Case Management System (CCMS) at Federal Supreme Court of Ethiopia (www.fsc.gov.et). The CCMS has been in operation over a decade and transformed registrar business process by automating its record management from start to finish and facilitated citizen’s request for court information. It is credited for reducing delay in retrieving court information, simplifying the process, and reducing the potential for corruption. The findings elaborate on the potential of the initial conceptual framework for understanding success and sustainability of e-government initiatives by uncovering the relationship between the enablers of e-government success and sustainability. Building on the initial conceptual framework, this paper ultimately proposes a revised sustainability framework to guide understanding of the phenomenon in the ground. The outcome of the research is also of value for practitioners as a quality tool to assess success and sustainability aspect of e-government initiatives.
Todd Sanderson, Andrew Reeson and Paul Box. Optimizing Open Government: An Economic Perspective on Data Sharing
Abstract: Data has value helping individuals, businesses and government make decisions. Sharing government data can, therefore, enhance its value, providing privacy is safeguarded. Open government data can also enhance equity by reducing the information advantage that large businesses increasingly have over smaller competitors and customers. However, there are costs associated with open data. It must be curated and disseminated. Protecting individual privacy may require aggregation or transformation. There are also different ways of sharing data. At its crudest, this may take the form of providing files, in whatever form, on a website. More usefully and at greater cost, sharing data may take the form of machine-readable APIs. Data services also help users draw insights from data, for example by identifying patterns or trends or highlighting the most salient information. These different sharing models incur different costs to government and users. More accessible data with associated services generally increase the potential benefits to users but will come at some cost to government. From an economic perspective, it will be more efficient if this is done once by the government. However, given the limited budget resources of governments it is worth considering how the process of opening government data could be optimized. The objective of this research is to provide a framework to assist decision-makers responsible for open data. A data prioritization index could assess the trade-offs between the costs and benefits of making particular datasets open. The benefits depend on the extent to which data are likely to be used by citizens, or to enhance competition among firms. The costs include the ICT infrastructure requirements and privacy safeguards needed to make the data open. Ultimately the value of open data will grow as artificial intelligence lowers the cost of drawing insights from it. Open data could also reduce the extent to which a small number of large companies are able to profit from monopolizing their data holdings.
Maik Brinkmann and Moreen Heine. Can Blockchain Leverage for New Public Governance? – A Conceptual Analysis on Process Level
Abstract: New Public Governance (NPG) as a paradigm for collaborative forms of public service delivery and Blockchain governance are trending topics for researchers and practitioners alike. Thus far, each topic has, on the whole, been discussed separately. This paper presents the preliminary results of ongoing research which aims to shed light on the more concrete benefits of Blockchain for the purpose of NPG. For the first time, a conceptual analysis is conducted on process level to spot benefits and limitations of Blockchain-based governance. Per process element, Blockchain key characteristics are mapped to functional aspects of NPG from a governance perspective. The preliminary results show that Blockchain offers valuable support for governments seeking methods to effectively coordinate co-producing networks. However, the extent of benefits of Blockchain varies across the process elements. It becomes evident that there is a need for off-chain processes. It is, therefore, argued in favour of intensifying research on off-chain governance processes to better understand the implications for and influences on on-chain governance.
Prashant Kumar Mittal and Deepak Chandra Misra. e-Governance and Digitalization of Indian Rural Development
Abstract: In a developing country like India, where more than half the
population, resides in rural spaces, it becomes essential that the
policies are made with an orientation towards the rural
development. The Ministry of Rural development, as the face of
government for rural population, has rolled out a variety of
welfare schemes like MGNREGA – Mahatma Gandhi National
Rural Employment Guarantee Act and PMAY-G – Pradhan Mantri
Awaas Yojna Gramin, aimed at employment and housing for all.
These schemes have been the very hallmarks of the social
infrastructure of the country. It has fostered equality, and has
been holistic and an aggressive attempt at alleviating poverty and
for inclusive growth of all places. This has helped reduce
migration and urbanization of only few places but has led to
holistic growth across locations.
However as the scope of these schemes have increased, the
conventional approach of the government faced challenges. The
widening interest and intersection with technology in governance
has reinvigorated the process. Towards this, there has been
sustained endeavor in the recent past to marry new emerging
areas of technology to government. This has led to better
implementation and management of the schemes and bringing e
governance to people. The focus has been on automation of the
processes and making the benefits accessible to the citizens.
To tackle the challenges stunting the progress of the welfare
schemes, ICT enabled platforms like Awaassoft Awaas App, Gram
Samvaad and NREGAsoft have been introduced. Digital
governance has facilitated more transparency and brought the
citizen close to the government. It has allowed policy
implementation and monitoring so as to ensure that the schemes
are reaching the people and mounting to their development. It has
allowed more pro poor changes, bringing more people in the path
to development. By empowering the rural community, there has been more sustained discourse towards creating a more equal and
inclusive society. However the IT enabled governance has many
challenges as well in a developing country like India.
In this paper, we will cover these technologies in detail,
understanding how they are helping in deliverance of the schemes
and building an equal, sustainable and inclusive society. Along
with that, we will also briefly glimpse at the challenges in e
governance and the larger implications for the government.
Abhishek Aggarwal, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta and Ajai Kumar Garg. India’s Digital Platform: low cost and efficient model for Digital inclusion
Abstract: Digitalisation is a central driving force of growth for both individual countries and the global economy as a whole. In particular, digital technologies offer new opportunities for businesses, workers and citizens to engage in economic activity and to enhance efficiency. However, due to uneven distribution of digital resources including access to internet has posed challenges with regard to outreach of the benefits to all sections and regions globally. The Digital Platform that Indian Government has developed has a long term vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and a knowledge economy, is being used to harness the digital technologies and the internet to bridge the digital divide, empowering and improving the quality of life of our citizens. Importantly, countries around the world are realizing the critical importance of using software based infrastructure to drive their national initiatives i.e. in education, skilling, social benefits, and financial inclusion. Yet, very few countries have the knowledge capital i.e. the capability and capacity to conceptualise, plan, implement, deploy and support the roll out of a national scale, secure software infrastructure for the benefit of their citizens. The Digital Governance model of India is a successful story of a low-cost world class technology that is being hailed across the globe for digital inclusion and public service delivery.
Sveinung Legard, George Anthony Giannoumis, Sissel Hovik and Cristina Paupini. Variation in E-Participation Schemes and Strategies: Comparative Case Study of Oslo, Madrid, and Melbourne
Abstract: Why are some cities more eager to adopt e-participation schemes than others, and why do e-participation practices vary among cities who adopts them? Current comparative research on e-participation in local government normally uses large-scale samples to identify determinants of e-participation adoption. Although these samples typically identify significant variables such as political will, modernization ambitions and political crisis, they often lack fine-grained explanations of the causal patterns leading to different forms of e-participation. In this on-going research paper, we therefore compare e-participation strategies and platforms in three cities: Oslo, Melbourne and Madrid. All cities are major urban centers within their countries and have affluent, highly educated and digitally connected populations. They do, however, have very different approaches to e-participation. We base our preliminary findings on government documents. Our analysis of these texts focuses on how these actors seek to attribute meaning or change practices through their communication with audiences in the field. Through the interviews, we both seek to elaborate on views presented in the documents, but also to trace the role these actors have played in developing the cities’ e-participatory practices. The aim of this process tracing is to understand the causal processes and complex decision-making leading to the adoption of the particular form of e-participation in the cities. The goal is to complement the existing large sample literature on determinants of e-participation adoption. In addition, we want to develop a richer understanding of the differences between the various forms of e-participation adopted in the cities, which is often lost in the coarse typologies used in large n studies.
Shiva Saketh Sanka, Gaurav Jain and Soumya Goondla. Electronic Citizen Service Delivery, MeeSeva - Telangana State, India
Abstract: MeeSeva initiated in the year 2011 provides smart, citizen-centric, ethical, efficient and effective governance leveraging advancements in technology. The initiative involves the delivery of government services to citizens & businesses of all strata in a universal and non-discriminatory manner. The core design of MeeSeva was based on the objectives of improved efficiency, transparency and accountability for the government resulting in significantly improved service delivery to citizens.
MeeSeva is an interface between government departments and citizens acting as the nodal agency (Electronic Service Delivery) as well as the platform for delivery of G2C services. MeeSeva has redefined the way Government services are delivered to citizens by bringing about 600+ services of 38 departments on a single platform. MeeSeva has taken government to the citizen’s doorsteps through various touch points which include:
-4500+ MeeSeva centers spread across the state
-A mobile app called T App Folio (launched in February 2018) which can be used through iOS, Android, USSD, IVRS reaching out to citizens with smart phone, feature phone, and no phone users
-A web portal
In the year 2016, ITE&C department conceptualized MeeSeva 2.0 to undertake a major strengthening of key aspects to improve the performance of MeeSeva and deliver a significant improved service delivery experience to citizens.
Abhishek Behl, Pankaj Dutta and Meena Chavan. Study of E-governance and online donors for achieving financial resilience post natural disasters
Abstract: The world is witnessing an increasing number of natural disasters. Technology has helped to combat major aspects of the same while economic and financial losses of the victims are largely unavoidable. Disaster recovery involves collaborative role of governance, technology and financial aid. The present study aims to study the behavioural aspect of financial donors who offer monetary help for financial resilience of the victims. The study uses Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and extends it by measuring the effect of “voluntariness” in understanding the behaviour. The paper studies the floods in Kerala, India, and aims to understand how online financial donors helped in e-governance and rebuilding the State. The study collects primary data of 308 financial donors and tests it against eight hypotheses. The results show that while voluntariness acts as a mediating variable for performance expectancy and its relationship with behavioural intention, it has insignificant effect on effort expectancy. The study found four out of eight hypotheses were giving significant results. The results also confirm that e-governance portals and voluntariness activities were much higher in Kerala than any other state in the country. An important conclusion was that both societal influence and facilitating conditions played a significant role in inclining the financial donors to contribute using e-governance portals. The results could be inspiration to studies in areas where there are recurring disasters. The study also offers both practical and theoretical insights to the field of e-governance and financial resilience. Study can further be extended to geographical areas with recurring disasters to test the consistency of results.
Muhammad Iqbal Hafizon, Adhi Wicaksono and Fabian Nur Farizan. E-Toll Laut: Blockchain Port as the Key for Realizing Indonesia’s Maritime Fulcrume
Abstract: Since the concept of Indonesia as the world's maritime fulcrum was initiated in 2014, the Government of Indonesia has begun to move quickly in formulating Indonesia's maritime connectivity policy. Indonesia's so-called "sea highway" (Tol Laut) program is one of them. However, this policy is considered to be less effective in solving logistical distribution chain problems which often caused the high price of basic goods in the market. Based on the results of the authors' observation, the process of dismantling containers at Indonesian ports can take more than 4 days. This is quite alarming, considering that the Indonesian port is the key to logistics distribution both between Indonesian islands and the international world. Therefore, the writing team formulated a concept of Indonesian “E-Toll Laut” (sea e-highway) policy as an e-governance solution to improve port management in Indonesia. E-Toll Laut itself is a name that the team of authors designates to explain the mechanism of blockchain port management in Indonesia. Based on the author's research team, this system is proven to be able to guarantee accountability, simplify the monitoring process, and accelerate bureaucratic processes and port transactions that are considered as accidents of the dwelling time process in Indonesia. The writing team then used Makassar port as a case study to give clearer picture for the problem.
Sundar Balakrishna. Is Information Technology (IT) Education Industry-relevant and Gender-inclusive? Perspectives from Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract: Industry reports show that fresh engineering and non engineering graduates from universities are not readily employable. The Government-owned Andhra Pradesh Information Technology Academy (APITA) seeks to equip graduates from the state’s degree and engineering colleges with industry-relevant skill sets for gainful employment. This study describes the activities of APITA, and empirically examines two questions: (1) Do students from colleges affiliated to APITA command higher salaries as compared to students from colleges not affiliated to APITA? (2) Do women graduates receive starting salaries that are lower than their male counterparts? Using data from placements conducted by APITA for the state’s students in the year 2017-18, the study finds that that the job market signals the higher quality of APITA-trained students by offering them higher salaries as compared to those students from colleges that are not APITA affiliates. The study also shows that there is a wage premium attributable to the female gender, insofar as entry level salary levels is concerned. Drawing from this empirical evidence, the study further highlights the deficiencies in information technology education in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh with reference to industry requirements, and gender inclusiveness. The constraints faced by APITA, and its future role in addressing the deficiencies noted are discussed, along with managerial implications.
Frank Michael and Timrawon Michaels. Towards e-Governance through a People’s Portal in India
Abstract: A controlling factor for a government from fully actualizing the transformation from e-Government to e-Governance could be a conflict of interest such as the fear of becoming completely transparent as they would then be held accountable. In this work, the rationale behind the need for a formation of an e-Governance structure, shaped and mobilized through citizen initiatives using ICT platforms, is detailed.
Adrià Rodríguez-Pérez, Pol Valletbó-Montfort and Jordi Cucurull. Bringing transparency and trust to elections: using blockchains for the transmission and tabulation of results
Abstract: The transmission and tabulation of results are critical steps in the election process. If election results are provided quickly and transparently, they may inspire trust and confidence on the overall management of the contest. On the other side, the late and questionable delivery of results may raise concerns and suspicion. In some cases, unproper counting and tabulation procedures have brought candidates to question election results and even spurred long periods of violence. In this paper we explore the potential of blockchain technology to enhance the counting and tabulation procedures during elections. Blockchains are distributed ledgers technologies whose transactions are protected cryptographically. It means that their contents cannot be tampered with nor modified in the long term. We argue that blockchain technology meets the requirements for electronic transmission and consolidation of election results. To prove so, we have implemented a proof of concept with a smart contract running on an Ethereum blockchain that registers the address of several polling stations and records the tally sheets that these submit at the end of the election. We also resort to the smart contract for the automatic and accurate consolidation of the election results once these have been submitted.
Nadine Ogonek, Michael Räckers and Jörg Becker. How to Master the “E”: Tools for Competence Identification, Provision and Preservation in a Digitalized Public Sector
Abstract: The digitalization of every aspect of life is in full swing and becoming an all-embracing societal phenomenon. Public administrations worldwide, eager to increase their efficiency and effectiveness, are in a change process, induced by the pervasiveness of technological advancements. This development does not only mean the substitution of analogue processes by the integration of information technologies, but first and foremost leads to changing demands on the tasks, roles and competences of the ones, who need to implement those changes, i.e. the public servants. This study therefore explores relevant roles and respective competences with regard to IT in public administrations and offers tools for their successful preservation to master this e-induced change: Based on a literature review, document analyses and expert workshops, 19 reference roles in public administrations are identified that are important for the implementation of eGovernment. In addition, we develop role fact sheets and competence matrices as possible means for the identification and documentation, which in turn can be supportive of a possible future competence preservation.
Erwin Alampay. Rationalizing local planning processes for Disaster Risk Reduction, Climate Change Adaptation and Ecosystems Management and Restoration
Abstract: The three approaches of disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, and ecosystems management and restoration (DRR-CCA-EMR), is collectively known as the Integrated Risk Management (IRM) require local government units (LGUs) to be at the forefront of the planning process. However, LGUs’ ability to undertake many of these plans (e.g. DRR-CCA; Coastal Resource Management; etc.) and mainstream them locally has been hampered by their limited capacities and understanding in the use of various planning frameworks and approaches, and ability to access and process the needed information.

To address the inadequacy and confusion, the Partners for Resilience (PfR)—represented by the Assistance and Cooperation for Community Resilience and Development (ACCORD) and CARE Philippines—and the Center for Local and Regional Governance (CLRG) of the UP National College of Public Administration and Governance (UP NCPAG) collaborated in organizing and conducting a series of activities (conference-workshop and an experts RTD) in order to help rationalize this process.

This practitioner or experience paper discusses the challenges of rationalizing the automation, access and use of DRR-CCA-EMR information in eGovernment in order to develop more integrated plans that engage stakeholders at the local level.
Shuhua Liu, Liting Pan and Yupei Lei. What is the role of New Generation of ICTs in transforming government operation and redefining State-citizen relationship in the last decade?
Abstract: This article first introduce a new government initiative emerging after the US presidential election in 2008. Comparing to the more descriptive definitions of e-government, supporters of these new government initiatives emphasize the transformative and normative aspect of the newest generation of Information and Communication Technology (ICTs). They argue that the new initiative redefines how government should operate and transform state-citizen relationships. To understand the core of this initiative and whether it offers new opportunities to solve public problems, we collected and analyzed research papers published in the e-governance area between 2008 and 2017. Our analysis demonstrates that the use of new generation of ICTs has promoted the government information infrastructure. In other words, the application of new ICTs enables the government to accumulate and use a large amount of data, so that the government makes better decisions. The advancement of open data, the wide use of social media, and the potential of data analytics have also generated pressure to address challenging questions and issues in e-democracy. However, the analysis leads us to deliberate on whether the use of new generation of ICTs worldwide have actually achieved their goal. In the conclusion, we present challenges to be addressed before new innovative ICTs realize their potential towards better public governance.
Nick Robinson, Laura Kask and Robert Krimmer. The Estonian Data Embassy and the Applicability of the Vienna Convention: An Exploratory Analysis
Abstract: The Vienna Convention has been long enshrined as the cornerstone of modern diplomacy. However, recent technological advances may have shifted this landscape, with international law requiring to adapt in the face of novel and unique challenges. Taking the case of the Estonian Data Embassy in Luxembourg, we assess the applicability of the Vienna Convention outside of the traditional diplomatic mission and within a government-operated data centre. Evaluating the legal challenges and reinterpretations made by the Estonian government so far, this early analysis hopes to invigorate and advance discussions around the wider applicability of the Vienna Convention. Can similar diplomatic protections and inviolability be afforded to State data and information systems, or should such an international legal framework be updated to fit within a digital era?
Charru Malhotra, Abhinav Sharma, Nishtha Agarwal and Ishita Malhotra. Review of Digital Citizen Engagement (DCE) Platform: A Case Study of MyGov of Government of India
Abstract: The advent of ICT has compelled governments all over the world to incorporate citizens into their functioning. It can be observed in the growth of online service delivery platforms, open data portals, complaint redressal etc. Another form of ICT usage that involves citizens is Digital Citizen Engagement (DCE) platforms which is the use of new media/digital ICTs to create or enhance the communication channels. Though developed countries have been forerunners in this, developing countries are not far behind. India, too, has a DCE called MyGov-a one-stop and dedicated indigenous social media platform of GoI. However, its functioning in context of developing country may plague its impact. Based on dedicated study of the platform, the following paper attempts to delineate upon these challenges from political, social and technical perspective and attempts to formulate some suggestions that can help MyGov to counter the challenges.
Nuno Ramos Carvalho and Luis Barbosa. Deep Learning Powered Question-Answering Framework For Organizations Digital Transformation
Abstract: In the context of digital transformation by governments, public sector and other organizations, many information is moving to digital platforms. Chatbots and similar question-answering systems are becoming popular to answer information queries, opposed to browsing online repositories of information. State-of-art-approaches for these systems may be laborious to implement, hard to train and maintain, and also require a high level of expertise.

This work explores the definition of a generic framework to systematically build question-answering systems. A sandbox implementation of this framework enables the deployment of an out-of-the-box system, directly from an already existing collection of documents, without additional effort. These systems can be then used to provide a communication channel to enrich the organization digital presence.
Olusegun Agbabiaka. e-Government Public Value Chain: Creating Value before Measuring Outcomes
Abstract: Better service outcomes and higher public value are either enhanced or impacted by the strength or weakness of the value creation chain. How much value do the process, the system and the technology contribute? How much value do the people who manage and interact with the other components of the value chain bring? How do the relationships between the elements of the chain affect one another and the entire value creation? These questions provide a significant research challenge. Value cannot be measured at the service outcomes level successfully, without creating an environment that deliberately adds “actual value” to the activities leading to the delivery of those services. Rather than focus on the end goal - outcomes of services - the proposed framework will take a step further at assessing and strengthening components and elements involved in the development and delivery of services and ultimately, the creation of sustainable public value.
Darmawan Napitupulu. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION READINESS TOWARD E-GOV 2.0 : COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO COUNTRIES
Abstract: At present the government has programs to build inclusion and equality in the community where each individual is empowered and given equal opportunities to participate in both social and political processes. Equality in the community is a cultural characteristic of society in this digital era. Everyone wants to get equal access to services provided by the government. This provides various benefits when equality in public participation can be applied through e-Government. Based on an economic perspective, increasing public access to government information and services can create economic value, increase efficiency and facilitate the business . From other perspectives, particularly from the political and civic engagement, as well as from the cultural and social participation, digital technologies enable new ways of communication, collaboration, and participation. Unfortunately, until now e-Government is only viewed from a technological perspective and does not involve community participation in e-Government development initiatives. As a result, services provided by the government have not been in accordance with the needs of the community. E-Gov 2.0 is a concept where public participation is a key factor in e-Government development initiatives. This study aims to analyze the extent to which e-Gov 2.0 readiness is based on the use of e-Government services and public participation in both countries, Indonesia and Malaysia. The results of the study generally showed that public participation in e-Government is still relatively low (<40%) even though citizen's e-participation interest in joining is very high (>90%) and citizen perception about e-Participation is highly positive (>99%).
Irving Reascos, João Alvaro Carvalho and Sonia Bossano. Implanting IT Applications in Government Institutions: A Process Model Emerging from a Case Study in a Medium-Sized Municipality
Abstract: Organizations of any kind, including companies and government institutions, understand the need to incorporate information technologies (IT) to improve internal and external communication, faster access to information, modernize decision making and provide better service to their customers. Incorporating IT into operations and management requires changes at various levels of the organization (services, processes, forms of work, technology and organizational structure) and brings up several challenges. Considering the level of maturity of existing IT solutions, the acquisition and implantation of ready-to-use software applications is, nowadays, a common way of gaining access to IT solutions. However, there is a lack of models to guide this process. The objective of this article is to propose such a model. The proposed model is grounded on the findings of a case study carried out in medium size municipality that recently went through the implantation process of an ERP IT application. The study allowed to identify key features in different facets of the implantation process. The study mainly involved interviews with key participants in the process. The model proposed in this article emerged during this study and accounts for the issued and concerns identified.
Harekrishna Misra and Rama Krushna Das. Citizen Empowerment: Block Chain supported E-Governance in Dairy Cooperative Sector
Abstract: E-Governance considers the dimension of business as one of its major constituents. Block chain attempts to bring in transparency in transactions and E-Governance focuses on this issue as well. Dairy sector, especially in cooperative sector, small and marginal farmers in developing countries depend mainly on dairy production. In cooperative model, members are empowered to govern their own organizations and electing its members to assume roles in governance structure need verification their eligibilities. This process needs transparent validation of their eligibility and it is argued that block chain architecture would be helpful. E-Governance services are much needed for supporting these farmers (citizens under E-governance framework) to support their governance process. Thus, it is imperative that stakeholders in the supply chain work in tandem to ensure that eligibility conditions are fulfilled in a transparent manner. In this paper, a conceptual framework is presented to relate E-Governance to block chain to explore feasibility of relating to efficient governance by bringing more transparency. In order to explore this dairy cooperative sector is taken up and E-Governance services are assessed with service oriented architecture framework. Case of dairy cooperative society Union is taken up to apply this conceptual framework and understand feasibility applying block chain principles. Future work on this includes application of block chain principles and assessing the effects by relating to actual benefits accrued by the farmers.
Luis Felipe M. Ramos and João Marco C. Silva. Privacy and Data Protection Concerns Regarding the Use of Blockchains in Smart Cities
Abstract: In this work we investigate which aspects of data protection regulation must be carefully observed when implementing Blockchain-based projects in smart cities. This technology provides interesting properties and allows governments to develop flexible and innovative data management systems. Nevertheless, realizing the benefits of using Blockchains requires understanding the government processes along with the legal framework and political setting imposed on government. Though it is a buzzword, Blockchain may not always be the best solution for data processing, and carrying out a Data Protection Impact Assessment could allow an analysis of the necessity and proportionality of the mechanism. Furthermore, principles relating to security of data remain applicable to Blockchains. We discuss points of interaction between Blockchain technology and the European Union data protection framework, and provide recommendations on how to better develop Blockchain-based projects in smart cities. The findings of the study should provide public sector actors with a guideline to assess the real necessity and better format of a Blockchain-based application.
Charru Malhotra, Rashmi Anand and Ishita Malhotra. Role of Emerging Technologies in Governance: Learnings for India to achieve SDGs
Abstract: Development in a country is fostered by its efficient governance. To ensure the betterment of their citizens, governments over the world have accepted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), announced by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in the year 2015, as acceptable governance targets for all. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) serve as meaningful contrivances to engage with all the cross-currents linking the 17 SDGs together. In present times, these technologies have also been accepted as a means for co-creating values for citizens as insisted by participatory models of governance too. This paper attempts to examine all aspects of employing emerging technologies in accelerating the processes of governance. Based on an analysis of the related academic literature and extensive field experience of the author, the paper seeks to address the following questions:

- How emerging technologies are expected to help achieve the SDGs and strengthen the relationship between the state and its citizens?
- What are some of the challenges that usually confront the uptake of emerging technologies in the governance context?
- What is expected to be the face of governance in the wake of emerging technologies?

After addressing these questions, the paper attempts to propose some viable strategies that can strengthen the application of digital emerging technologies in governance.
João Marco Silva and Vitor Fonte. Data Security and Trustworthiness in Online Public Services: An Assessment of Portuguese Institutions
Abstract: Providing public services through the internet is an effective approach towards an encompassing number of citizens being covered by them and for cost reduction. However, the fast development of this area has fostered discussion and legislation regarding information security and trustworthiness. In addition to security mecha- nisms for data processed and stored internally, service providers must ensure that data exchanged between their servers and citizens are not intercepted or modified when traversing heterogeneous and uncontrolled networks. Moreover, such institutions should provide means enabling the citizen to verify the authenticity of the services offered. In this way, the present work provides a comprehensive overview regarding the security posture of Portuguese public institutions in their online services. It consists of non-invasive ro- bustness evaluation of the deployed solutions for end-to-end data encryption and the correct use of digital certificates. As a result, we provide some recommendations aiming to enhance the current panorama in the majority of the 111 online services considered in this study.
Voahangy Rakotonirina and Harilanto Raoelson. The digitalization of custom administration and enterprises competitiveness in Madagascar
Abstract: In the context of globalization, this study tries to assess the impact of the digitalization of the customs administration on the enterprises competitiveness. Since 2005, modernization has been initiated by the Malagasy government to deal with the bureaucratic dysfunctions of the public administration, including the customs administration (Act n ° 2005-023, 17th October) in order to improve the public finances governance. Despite positive outcomes in using electronic tools, various obstacles are still to be overcome.
Ebenezer Agbozo. The Private Sector as an E-Government Enabler
Abstract: Assessing the development of e-government (E-Gov.) over time, one can observe that research with respect to its benefits has primarily probed into the role and impact of e-government on improving and optimizing business processes the private sector and enterprises. The study draws on the concepts of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) and Actor-Network Theory (ANT) based on selected cases to substantiate the premise that the private sector is a key player in creating the environment and supporting e-participation. It finally recommends E-Gov. authorities to create the necessary environment for the private sector to support government in achieving a formidable E-Gov. system.
Débora Dutra and Delfina Soares. Mobile Applications in Central Government of Brazil and Portugal
Abstract: This research aims to explore the scenario of mobile applications made available by the central administrations of Brazil and Portugal to citizens. To this end, 25 services in Brazil were analyzed, which could be performed partially or integrally, through APP. In Portugal 21 APPs that provided some kind of service through this channel were part of the study. Although a more extensive set of data has been collected, as it is an ongoing investigation, the analysis topics presented in this study are: Realization of the Service; Classification of the Service; Official Category; N ° of Services versus N ° of APPs. The main results reflect that in Brazil the area of government with the greatest number of services through APPs is Social Security; that 60% of services can be carried out entirely via APP; that almost 90% of the services are in the Interactive Stage and that for all services analyzed there are 12 APPs, this means that the same APP offers several services. In Portugal three areas of government stand out in the offer of services: Recreation; Social Support and Health; Citizenship and Documentation, in that order and sharing 74% of the offer. The vast majority of services are in the Interactive Stage (48%) and in the Informational and Educational stage (38%). In the Service versus APP relationship, each of the analyzed applications dealt with a service.
Luciana Rigotto, Elita Martins Andrade, Beatriz Barreto Brasileiro Lanza, Andréa Paula Segatto and Marcia Ramos May. Understanding Strategic Alliances in the Public Sector: The case of Brazilian DMV
Abstract: This paper discusses strategic alliances in the Brazilian public sector through a contractual relationship of the provision of information technology and communication. This is an exploratory-descriptive case study, with the objective of understanding the role of the supplier in the contractor's strategic planning of technology in the public sector. It can be observed that dependence, trust, communication, commitment, and adaptation are present in the relationship between the supplier and the technology taker. These constructions go beyond the limits of technology supply contract and are characterized as a strategic alliance in the partnership between the parties. This study contributes to the understanding of the role of public technology organizations in the process of innovation of public sector organizations.
Maciej Janowski, Adegboyega Ojo, Edward Curry and Lukasz Porwol. Mediating Open Data Consumption – Identifying Story Patterns for Linked Open Statistical Data
Abstract: Statistical data account for a very large proportion of data published on open data platforms. This category of data are which are often of high quality, value and public interest; are gradually being published as 5-star linked open statistical data or data cubes (LOSD) for easy integration and cross-border comparability. However, publishing open data as linked data (i.e. graph oriented) significantly increases the technical skill requirements for end-user consumption. We address this problem by mediating the exploration and analysis of LOSD published on open data platforms through the use of data stories. After providing the requisite background information on LOSD, we identified data story patterns from extant literature and show how these patterns can be employed in analysing LOSD. Subsequently, we provide a case study to illustrate the use of these data story patterns as an end-user domain-specific language to explore and analyse LOSD. We argue that using data stories for exploring and analysing on open data platforms has the potential to significantly increase the adoption and use of (linked) open data.
Charalampos Alexopoulos, Zoi Lachana, Aggeliki Androutsopoulou, Vasiliki Diamantopoulou, Yannis Charalabidis and Michalis Avgerinos Loutsaris. How Machine Learning is changing e-Government
Abstract: Big Data is, clearly, an integral part of modern information societies. A vast amount of data is, daily, produced and it is estimated that, for the years to come, this number will grow dramatically. In order for transforming this hidden provided information into a useful one, the use of advanced technologies, such as Machine Learning is deemed appropriate. Over the last years, Machine Learning has grown a great effort considering the given opportunities its usage provides. Furthermore, Machine Learning is a technology that can handle Big Data classification for statistical or even more complex purposes such as decision making. At the same time the new generation of government, Government 3.0, explores all the new opportunities to tackle any challenge faced by contemporary societies by utilizing new technologies for data driven decision making. Taking into account the opportunities Machine Learning can provide, more and more governments participate in the development of such applications in different governmental domains. But is the Machine Learning only beneficial for public sectors? Although there is a huge number of researches in the literature there is no a comprehensive study towards the analysis of this technology. Our research moves towards this question conducting a comprehensive analysis of the use of Machine Learning from Governments. Through the analysis all benefits and barriers are indicated from the public sectors' perspective pinpointing, also, a number of Machine Learning applications where governments are involved.
Fatemeh Ahmadi Zeleti and Adegboyega Ojo. Agile Mechanisms for Open Data Process Innovation in Public Sector Organizations: Towards Theory Building
Abstract: Process innovation in public organizations is widely documented and has increasingly been the subject of empirical scrutiny. However, no study has attempted to investigate process innovation in open data organizations in public sector. Guided by the Dynamic Capability Theory and based on the detailed study of four open data organizations, we synthesize a theoretical model and a process model for open data process innovation in public sector organizations. Specifically, the study sought to understand how open data process agility is achieved in these organizations. The results highlight the specific agile mechanisms that enable and improve open data process innovation in public sector organizations. The results also provide perspectives on how open data organizations in public sector can change data processes to transform the way they respond to changing demands and external environment.
Yannis Charalabidis, Michalis Avgerinos Loutsaris, Shefali Virkar, Charalampos Alexopoulos, Anna-Sophie Novak and Zoi Lachana. Use Case Scenarios on Legal Text Mining
Abstract: The operation of Europe as a well-functioning Digital Single Market, where Europeans are able to move among the EU member states and in the other hand the large amount of information about laws that apply in the EU countries has driven to a societal problem in which only legal experts can follow the latest legislation. However, Mass customization tools can help to filter and thereby reduce the flood of legal information and make it easier to be followed even for citizens without legal expertise. ManyLaws is a proposed novel framework and an ICT architecture for the introduction of a set of services for citizens, businesses, and administrations of the European Union, built upon text mining, advanced processing and semantic analysis of legal information. In this paper, we conducted usage scenarios with target groups and analyze them in six dimensions in order to the proper selection of ManyLaws services and provide novel functionalities with the aim of addressing citizens daily problems. Generally, ManyLaws users priorities more basic services such as search functionalities which directly impact their everyday professional and personal use of legal information.
José Carlos Pereira. The genesis of the revolution in Contract Law: Smart Legal Contracts
Abstract: Smart Contracts, which derive from Blockchain technology, are one of the most peremptory applications of this. However, as it is a very recent technology, investors’ uncertainty and fear makes their development slowly and cautiously. There are, therefore, a number of questions and legal problems that arise.

The paper identifies what revolution Blockchain adds to the contractual processes, exploring its potential and analysing the main legal difficulties it is facing. It seeks the analysis of the pros and cons of this new technology, specially the questions about enforcement, nature and form, consent and (in) flexibility.

The purpose of this investigation is to recognize the nature of this technology and its impact on the Contract Law. And because of this, the impact and challenges that it brings to the Governance of a nation as well as on private companies and individuals. Therefore this study is based mostly in the review of already existing embryonic laws about Blockchain technology or similar, authors that wrote about Smart Contracts and also some recent news to show the social and economic impact in the world.

In short, the subject that this paper presents is the beginning of a true technological, social and economic revolution that must be anticipated and prepared by the law and those who work with it.
Ayman Almukhlifi, Hepu Deng and Booi Kam. Critical factors for the adoption of e-government in developing countries: validation of a measurement model
Abstract: The benefits of e-government have attracted many countries across the world to introduce e-government. There is, however, lack of studies in validating a measurement model for evaluating the adoption of e-government in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a measurement model for evaluating the adoption of e-government in developing countries from the perspective of citizens. A pre-test, pilot study, reliability test, the convergent validity, the goodness of model fit and the discriminant validity are performed based on the data collected from 478 respondents using a survey instrument distributed in Saudi Arabia to validate a measurement model. This study, furthermore, validates the measurement model through the use of the structural equation modeling. The results reveal that a total of ten constructs with 39-items are valid for investigating the adoption of e-government in developing countries. This survey instrument provides a useful set of refined measures that can be used in similar contexts for investigating the adoption of e-government.
Cesar Renteria, J. Ramon Gil-Garcia and Theresa Pardo. Toward an Enabler-Based Digital Government Maturity Framework: A Preliminary Proposal Based on Theories of Change
Abstract: Digital government has been seen as a strategy to improve public services, foster engagement with citizens, and modernize government agencies. Regardless of the recognition of this important role in government transformation, there is no consistent evidence in terms of the determinants and results of digital government strategies. More specifically, there is no clarity about what leads to successful digital government initiatives. Stage-based maturity models have been used to better understand the current situation of digital government in terms of results. They could also be seen as useful in helping to understand the resources and capabilities of government agencies and how they contribute to successful digital government projects. However, existing maturity models have been criticised due to their lack of theory, oversimplification of reality, and linear thinking. In an attempt to overcome some of these shortcomings, this paper proposes what we call an enabler-based digital government maturity model. Our proposed model not only argues for a multidimensional view, but also suggests how to think about specific mechanisms of impact. By specifying the mechanisms of influence our proposal starts a necessary conversation about maturity models and the potential complementarity of stage-based and enabler-based approaches.
Mortaza S. Bargh, Ronald Meijer, Marco Vink, Susan van den Braak and Sunil Choenni. On opening sensitive data sets in light of GDPR
Abstract: Disclosure of personal data is considered as one of the main threats for data opening. In this contribution we consider the data that are sensitive in GDPR terms (for example, criminal justice data within the Dutch justice domain) and discuss how they can be opened. According to Dutch laws, such data can be opened if they are without personal information. Subsequently, we distinguish two cases for having no personal information in data sets based on whether the data controller cannot or can revert the data protection process. These two cases are related to two GDPR concepts of data being anonymous or pseudonymized in its GDPR sense, respectively. In this contribution we highlight the need for deciding on which GDPR concept should be adopted for opening sensitive data sets (i.e., whether the opened data should be protected against data controllers or not). For making this decision, we recommend policymakers to consider also the impacts of realizing the prevalent concept on, e.g., data utility.
Marco Konopacki, Fabro Steibel and Debora Albu. Mudamos: a civil society initiative on collaborative law making in Brazil
Abstract: Brazil’s Constitution instituted a few means of direct democracy including the possibility of any citizen propose a draft bill at a legislative house at the municipal, state or federal level, given the support of a minimum of citizens explicit through their signature. Until today, popular initiative bills’ signatures are paper-based, which is not only costly, but also presents problems connected to transparency and safety principles. ITS Rio believed that technology could transform this process and hence developed a mobile app called “Mudamos” (“we change” in Portuguese) to prove that it is possible to sign bills of popular initiative electronically.

Since the launch of the app Mudamos in March 2017, we have observed that the population has a lot of will to participate and good ideas to propose. However, despite this potential for engagement, citizens experience difficulty when transforming those ideas into draft bills to be presented to legislative houses. Therefore, we have developed “Virada Legislativa” (legal hackathon): a methodology comprising an activity to develop draft bills collectively addressing a single issue and within a timeframe.

In this article, we aim to showcase this toolbox for democratic participation, connecting cutting-edge digital innovations on electronic signatures (online) with social innovative methodologies (offline), highlighting the impact we have had throughout this period as well as the challenges faced and lessons learned.
Arbi Chouikh, Lilia Sfaxi and Sehl Mellouli. Could Facebook Influence Municipal Elections? Tunisian Case Study
Abstract: Since the beginning of the Arab spring, Tunisians have asked for a
new system with fundamental political, social and economic
reforms. People have been revolting for dignity, liberty, social
equality and for equity between regions through the equal division
of wealth. This is why, during the democratic transition, there was
a significant focus on the decentralized development, where local
authorities are more autonomous, which means that the
municipalities will have more authority. On 06 May 2018, the first
municipal elections after the revolution took place in Tunisia.
These elections were preceded by an electoral campaign where
social media were used to debate on different topics related to
these elections. This paper aims to investigate if there is a
correlation that can be deduced between the posts and reactions on
social media, especially on Facebook, and the final results of the
elections. To this end, we will make an analysis of the candidates'
Facebook pages and the reactions of their followers towards their
campaigns in order to understand how far social media insights
were significant in the municipal elections results. Results show
that either on Facebook or in front of the voting ballot, political
parties get the highest number of interactions from citizens, but
there is no direct correlation that can help us predict which list
will be the most voted for. But when considering independent lists
only, results show that their presence in social media and the
reactions of citizens to their publications can be representative of
their final voting results.
Swati Verma. Redefining India’s Open Government Data cycle: Identifying barriers to OGD use by specialist “infomediary” users
Abstract: This study seeks to identify the current trends in ongoing and potential use of open government data (OGD) in India from the demand side and redefine its open data consumption cycle. For this purpose, it firstly summarizes the present state of research in India and broadens the current specialist (infomediary) user-perspective on OGD. Subsequently, it seeks to identify the current user discourse in India by employing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) or topic modelling over empirical data collected from 2000 conversations from a popular infomediary online forum for Indian OGD users. To substantiate the findings of the aforesaid secondary data it further analyses and correlates the observations with a case study of an OGD dependent rescue operation website built out of a public-private partnership in Kerala to mitigate the 2018 flood crisis: identifying the key stakeholders, barriers and gaps in employing OGD for the website. The paper, thus, redefines the stakeholders, barriers and gaps in and the consumption cycle of OGD in India, identifying the constraints for existing and future innovations that might arise out of OGD’s civic, economic and political value. In this manner, the study argues that by determining the central discourses in OGD usage of the infomediary community, one could understand the processes of OGD consumption in India.
Viktor Grechyn. Public Wi-Fi metadata in data-driven urban governance
Abstract: This article focuses on how Data Retention Obligation (DRO) relates to public Wi-Fi (PWF) service provision in Australia, highlighting PWF metadata as a product of applying DRO to PWF networks. Following brief overview of DRO regulation and metadata privacy conundrum, three themes are highlighted: access to PWF metadata by Local Government Administrations (LGAs), privacy character of PWF metadata in comparison it of other kinds of communication metadata, and examples of data-driven insights for urban governance which could be sourced from unrestricted access to PWF metadata.
Felix Ter Chian Tan, Nan Zhang, Carmen Leong and Zhe Zhu. Toward Smart City Services: A Platform-Enabled Public-Private Collaboration Perspective
Abstract: Smart city initiatives and expenditure into digital transformation of public services necessitates new forms of collaboration and organization, especially for the application of emergent digital technologies to enhance the efficiency of government practices and community services. This study investigates collaborative actions in the development of three platform-enabled smart city initiatives — elder care, urban management and cloud services — in Beijing, China from a private-public partnerships perspective, in order to enhance the quality of living and resource consumption in the city. In this short paper, we present preliminary analysis on an elder care smart city initiative, ongoing and future analysis. This research is significant to shed light into the mechanisms of private-public partnerships to sustain innovation ecosystems and inclusive growth in a smart city strategy. This study seeks to provide empirical contribution to nascent smart city research, in order to develop roadmaps for participatory action and collaborative problem solving.
More Ickson Manda and Soumaya Ben Dhaou. Responding to the challenges and opportunities in the 4th Industrial revolution
Abstract: The advent of the 4th industrial revolution promises significant social and economic opportunities and challenges which demand that governments respond appropriately in supporting the transformation of society. The purpose of this study is to understand the challenges confronting developing countries in the adoption of digital transformation agendas to leverage the social and economic benefits of the digital-driven 4th industrial revolution. The study is an interpretive case study that uses documentary evidence and a review of the literature as its primary method of collecting data. South Africa is used as a single case study of a developing country that has embraced digital transformation as a critical strategy in inclusive growth. In framing the study, the socio-technical perspective is adopted.
Ahmed Hachem, Ghada El Khayat, Hanan El Assar and Samar El Kasrawy. e-Collaboration of Government Actors to Support Participatory Tourism Planning in Egypt
Abstract: Egypt enjoys unique environmental features and tourism resources which distinguish it from many other countries. However, the advancement and prosperity of tourism depend not only on the tourism resources, but on the administrative capacity of the governmental tourism authorities that are able to exploit and manage these resources to achieve the objectives of tourism development with high efficiency and low cost.
The tourism planner works within a planning environment, which is characterized by uncertainty, complexity, volatility and ambiguity. This requires a large amount of information regarding all variables in the planning environment, both internally and externally. This study proposes to support the tourist planner using participatory planning, vertically and horizontally through the implementation of collaborative information systems that directly and indirectly support the tourism planner in the development of tourism plans and help in sharing information among all stakeholders effectively. Several successful international experiences implemented collaborative information systems in tourism planning at national and local levels, which contributed to providing a clear vision for the implementation process in the Egyptian context. This study relied on personal interviews with tourism planners in planning bodies at the national level as well as the planners at the local level of Alexandria governorate to assess the current situation of participatory planning in addition to evaluating the extent to which the planners accepted the collaborative information systems. The study identified factors that hinder the use of participatory planning tools to their full potential in Alexandria Governorate. However, in general, planners perceived collaborative information system as a tool to enhance the participatory tourism planning in Alexandria Governorate. The study proposed a framework and a structure necessary to have in place to enable success of participatory tourism planning relying on cooperative information systems in Alexandria governorate.

Louis Geoffroy-Terryn. Regulating ‘Social Scores’ in Data-Driven Societies
Abstract: This paper investigates the development of ‘social scores’, which it defines as an quantified assessment of a persons’ social worth, by means of analysing their digital footprints. In a context where data has become the raw material enabling the next technological revolution, there is a growing interest for ways by which to excerpt valuable information out of ever-larger datasets. Amongst those lies the development of technology-enabled analytical methods applicable to personal data, as it allows to capture virtually all facets of individuals in their capacity as users, consumers or citizens.
The paper contends that the legal and regulatory framework in which this practice takes place, is a significant factor influencing potential successes as well as perils stemming from it. As such, the paper adopts a comparative approach, through a cross-case analysis introducing recent developments across three influential jurisdictions: the European Union, the United States and China.
In doing so, the paper intends to identify common practices as well as differences in the development of an innovative practice with – potentially – far reaching consequences onto the lives of millions, irrespective of cultural, social and legal backgrounds.
In this poster paper, the bases on which the paper stands from a contextual and legal-regulatory perspectives, as well as methodological elements, are presented.
Md Gofran Faroqi. The role of telecentre in developing entrepreneurship: A case study on Union Digital Centres in Bangladesh
Abstract: This paper evaluates the role of a telecentre project- the Union Digital Centres (UDC) in Bangladesh- in developing entrepreneurship among rural youths under Public-Private Partnership. Contrary to engaging qualified operators in terms of efficiency and investment the UDC has employed local youths who are small scale investors, home grown and amateur in skill. Many operators earn very low and some run off the project leading to closure of centres. In this context understanding the issue of entrepreneurship attains significance for the sustainability of the model. Entrepreneurship is defined in terms of operator's income, his/her satisfaction on income and the level of investment. The study hypothesizes that factors responsible for entrepreneurship development include ICT and internet, services, clients' turnout, stakeholders' involvement and experience of the operator. Based on an internet survey and interview of operators and a review of literature the study explores features of UDC facilitated entrepreneurship. It describes stakeholders' involvement in ensuring inputs and their roles in promoting entrepreneurship. An application of a structural equation model supports the hypotheses validating that operator’s own initiative synergized with support from the government influence the development of entrepreneurship among operators. The results specify that the UDC bears potential to develop entrepreneurship among operators given they use a variety of equipment and better quality internet, provide a range of services to a greater volume of clients, receive stakeholder's support and demonstrate computer and managerial skills. The government’s role in implementation, human resource management and monitoring of the project influences the process. The study also finds that the project experiences a range of challenges from inadequate involvement of partners. Since deficiency in any partner’s role can affect the mission of entrepreneurship development, the author suggests that the government must take the lead role in engaging relevant partners to convert the UDC as an enterprise.
Ian McShane. Public-Private Partnerships in Municipal Wi-Fi: Optimising Public Value
Abstract: Public-private partnerships (PPP) are the dominant business model for the procurement and operation of public digital communication networks such as public Wi-Fi and IoT, technologies that play a significant role in providing public
internet access and managing urban systems. However, the voluminous critical literature on private sector provision of public infrastructure services pays little attention to these forms of communications infrastructure. This paper engages critically with broad claims that PPPs or similar contracting-out
arrangements risk capture of city governments by Big Tech through an empirical analysis of PPP models in the provision of municipal-level public Wi-Fi. Focussing on Australian examples, the paper argues for a nuanced view of this ‘capture’ hypothesis. The paper argues that the limited expertise and resources of
local government authorities (LGA), together with the regulatory complexity of the telecommunications field, weigh against direct LGA provision of public Wi-Fi. However, the paper draws on field research to highlight two concerns associated with the PPP model of public Wi-Fi provision. The first is the lack of
transparency and accountability relating to digital infrastructure procurement and network evaluation imposed by the commercial-in-confidence claims. The second concern is the limited attention shown by LGAs to questions of data access
when contracting private providers, subsequently limiting the capacity of those authorities to obtain and use network metadata for public good purposes. To address these concerns, the paper draws on the work of public management scholar Mark H Moore to discuss ways that the public value of PWF networks can be
articulated and optimised in PPP arrangements.
Deniz Susar and Vincenzo Aquaro. Artificial Intelligence: Opportunities and Challenges for the Public Sector
Abstract: Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to a set of technologies through which “intelligent machines are gaining the ability to learn, improve and make calculated decisions in ways that enable them to perform tasks previously thought to rely solely on human experience, creativity, and ingenuity” [[2]]. As stated in the 2018 the UN E-Government Survey, major technological developments in software and hardware have enhanced the advancement of AI and its potential impact on society. Increased data collection and usage are magnifying the learning process of computers and improving the quality of AI systems which are heavily data-dependent. On the one hand, AI holds the promise to be a catalyst in accelerating development and allowing developing countries to leapfrog over some traditional obstacles. On the other hand, it brings along challenges such as its impact on the workforce, the ethical implications of some of its applications, and the need for capacity-building which would essentially overhaul the kind of education required for the next generation.

This working paper analyzes the above issues from a public sector angle and raises questions which should be considered by public administrators and those working on digital government development in particular. Moreover, the analyses are built on the 2018 United Nations E-Government Survey findings and the working paper is expected to be discussed in detail in the preparatory meetings leading to the next edition of the United Nations E-Government Survey.
Lei Zheng. Digital Government, Smart Cities and Sustainable Development
Abstract: While the global population continues to grow, more people are living in cities. In 2018, 55 per cent of the world’s population lived in cities. By 2050, this is expected to increase to 68 per cent – almost seven in every ten people will live in cities. If sustainable development is to deliver to all people, urban development plays a critical role. The ‘smart city’ is now the playbook for resilient, sustainable and liveable cities, and smart technologies are creating daily touchpoints that make both huge and small impacts across all walks of people’s lives. Today’s cities and tomorrow’s smart cities are intricately linked to the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development across its 17 goals.

This paper first explores at-a-glance the fundamentals and layers that support smart cities, providing an overview but not a deep-dive into the technicalities. This includes, but not limited to, the policy and infrastructure frameworks, the data ecosystem including open data and big, data, the device level including Internet of Things and mobile devices, and the application level in general. Three dimensions of policy integration in smart city development is suggested, namely: (i) horizontal integration across sectors and disciplines; (ii) vertical integration across different governmental levels as well as linkages between national and local development; and (iii) a whole-of-society approach in smart city development with the engagement of the private sector and civil society. The nexus of smart city goals and the global 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is then articulated. Building on the key issues identified, a high-level analysis of global and regional metrics in accessing smart cities is done, em
Rochelle Wilson. Building Trust Through Promises
Abstract: Trust is an important factor for the smooth functioning of the government and the implementation of its services like e-governance. The political environment today is highly volatile and unpredictable, leading to a decline of citizens trust in the government systems. One of the most common instruments to build and promote trust are promises. However, promises are sometimes broken due to intentional and unintentional reasons. For the longest time, politicians and governments have been infamous for their acts of reneging. They renege due to economic uncertainty, obsolescing bargain, political change and competition. This study is the first to examine a new form of promise “partial promises” i.e., where a promisor (one who makes the promise), signals an intention to carry out what is promised with some probability rather than with certainty. Such promises help maintain a favourable reputation even when the promise is not honoured. This study shows that though individuals trust and utilise standard promises more, partial promises too, are effective in building trust. Partial promises are seen to have fewer downsides when broken, in comparison to standard promises. Not only do they give rise to less emotions of anger, sadness, and betrayal, but are also punished less in comparison to standard promises. This study recommends taking a flexible approach to implementing e-government systems like My health record that has very little public support and trust. For such systems that require more transparency and external push, the study recommends the use of such partial promises to help build and improve trust.