ICEGOV2007 – ICEGOV2019
Conference theme

1st International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance

Macau, China

10 - 13 December 2007

Summary

The 1st International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV2007) took place in Macau, China, from 10 to 13 December 2007 and under the high patronage of the Government of Macau SAR. It was co-organized by the Center for Electronic Governance of the United Nations University International Institute for Software Technology (UNU-IIST-EGOV), the Center for Technology in Government (CTG) of the University at Albany, and the United Nations Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development (APCICT).

In a diverse international setting of networking and community-building, the conference brought together practitioners, developers and researchers from government, academia, industry and non-governmental organizations to share the latest findings in the theory and practice of Electronic Governance. The conference provided a unique opportunity for close interactions between the three categories of participants, so that each could benefit from the interaction with others. Government participants described concrete initiatives, lessons learned and the remaining challenges. In return, they learned about the latest research results, and how such results are implemented by industry and other governments to address the challenges they face. Industry and non-governmental participants demonstrated concrete technological and organizational solutions for governments. In return, they learned about the challenges faced by governments and the latest research findings available for developing solutions. Academic participants presented models, theories and frameworks which extend the understanding of Electronic Governance and upon which concrete solutions can be built. In return, they learned about the problems faced by governments, gaining access to concrete cases, and identifying opportunities to implement and deploy research prototypes.

Statistics

Submitted papers (159) and published papers (82). 

Ring chart of submitted vs accepted papers (ICEGOV2007).

Acceptance rate (52%) and rejection rate (48%). 

Ring chart of acceptance vs rejection rate (ICEGOV2007).

Proceedings

Tomasz Janowski and Theresa A. Pardo (Eds.). 2007. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV2007). ACM Press, New York, USA. (ISBN: 978-1-59593-822-0)

Proceedings cover ICEGOV2007.

Accepted Papers

#1
;  Sharon S. Dawes
ID
#1
Abstract

Electronic Governance is defined in many ways, but all the definitions include an expectation of innovation and improvement in the public sphere. Innovation entails experimentation and risk. Improvement requires deep understanding of the context of government, as well as new tools and new ways of working. Accordingly, advancing electronic governance demands both learning and action. This talk will focus on ways to conceptualize, operationalize, and capitalize on ways to link research and practice in a shared and mutually rewarding enterprise aimed at better public management and better governance.

Keywords
governance; learning; actions; innovation; improvement; public sector; public management
Authors
Sharon S. Dawes
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#2
;  Olu Agunloye
ID
#2
Abstract

e-Government implementation framework has been established in Nigeria and is being executed in four phases. Over the last three years and particular now at the stage of full roll-out of e-Government solutions, e-Readiness capacities are being built within the public service at the Federal, State and Local Government tiers as well as within the Private Sector, especially the banking and financial institutions and also within professional associations and groups.

This paper describes the adopted e-Government model, its implementation strategy and platform for integration as well as the reinforcing roles of various Government establishments. It also describes the multiple partnerships with financial institutions and technical solution providers that lead to development of e-Government programs in Ministries, Departments and Agencies, under the basic guidelines and deployment of citizen-centric e-Government solutions.

Keywords
e-Government Implementation, Framework, e-Readiness, e- Government Solution Model, Partnership, Integration Platform, Government Establishment
Authors
Olu Agunloye
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#3
;  Guido Bertucci
ID
#3
Abstract

ICTs can help reinvent government in such a way that existing institutional arrangements can be restructured and new innovative arrangements can flourish, paving the way for a transformed government. This supposedly transformed government is more responsive to the needs of citizens and businesses, more efficient, more transparent and participatory. The questions that arise then are what is the implementation pace of e-government initiatives around the world and how can the real needs of citizens be met. The UN Global E-Government Readiness Report, 2008, seeks to provide answers to these questions by quantitatively assessing the strengths and weaknesses in e-government initiatives worldwide. The 2008 Report deals with these issues from the perspective of leveraging the knowledge of public organizations, since knowledge management has the potential to improve the electronic provision of services.

In their effort to provide public value to citizens, governments throughout the world face a number of challenges. Such challenges range from thoughtful IT planning, providing finance and adequate physical infrastructures in a rapidly changing technological environment, confronting problems related to existing IT infrastructure, reducing the operational cost structure of services that they provide, retaining and retraining staff, leadership and other human resources issues, data mining issues and providing for the adequate protection of data, and security and privacy issues. E-government provides a vision and a strategy for addressing these challenges and for creating an environment for the transformation of government activities by applying ebusiness methods on the public sector.

Keywords
Public Value, Citizens, Governments, IT Planning, Physical Infrastructures, Training and Retraining, Leadership, Human Resources, Data Mining, Data Security, Privacy Issues, Vision, Strategy, Public Sector
Authors
Guido Bertucci
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#4
;  Jim Davies, Tomasz Janowski, Adegboyega Ojo, Aadya Shukla
ID
#4
Abstract

This paper explores the relevance and opportunities for the application of mature Formal Techniques – techniques based on mathematical theories and supported by industry-ready tools and methods – to build technical solutions for Electronic Governance. The paper proceeds in four steps: (1) establishes the basic need for Formal Techniques in Electronic Governance, (2) identifies the challenges peculiar to Electronic Governance development, (3) presents the salient features and various application scenarios for Formal Techniques in general, and (4) carries out a mapping between the challenges to Electronic Governance and various application scenarios of Formal Techniques as part of solutions to such challenges. In the second part, the paper presents an overview of the tutorial and workshop on Formal Engineering Methods for Electronic Governance. The tutorial follows the four- step program, as above, and the workshop includes the presentations of four papers that exemplify various elements of the mapping, particularly: the use of formal, precise modeling techniques; the importance of security risk assessment; model- driven development of software systems; and the provision of semantic frameworks to coordinate development within and across major programs and initiatives. In the last part, the paper discusses how Formal Techniques can contribute to establishing a solid foundation for Electronic Governance.

Keywords
Electronic Governance, Formal Techniques
Authors
Jim Davies, Tomasz Janowski, Adegboyega Ojo, Aadya Shukla
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#5
;  Bernd Stadlhofer, Peter Salhofer
ID
#5
Abstract

Currently there are numerous initiatives for applying Semantic Web technologies to e-Government. Most of these efforts concentrate on the definition, discovery, orchestration and execution of Semantic Web services. The focus is thereby often on system-to-system communication and less on human-computer interaction. In this paper we present a way to generate web-forms out of an existing semantic description. The core difference to most of the existing similar approaches is that our semantic description does not focus on web-service description: it simply utilizes Semantic Web technologies to provide a logic description of Public Administration Services and relevant parts of the e-Government domain. The idea is to automatically identify relevant input for a Public Administration Service based on the semantic description of the service and its business rules that must be applied to create the particular results. According to the relevant input a web-form is generated to gather the needed information from the citizen. This input is interactively checked against the procedure’s business rules. If the provided data is correct and conforms to the ontology's restriction, the data, represented as XML and RDF, can be consumed by any application supporting the data interchange standard including Semantic Web services.

Keywords
Semantic Web, e-Government, OWL, RDF, XSD, GEA, XForms
Authors
Bernd Stadlhofer, Peter Salhofer
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#6
;  Xiaoyi Chen, Weiqiang Kong, Kokichi Futatsugi
ID
#6
Abstract

In this paper, we introduce formal methods into the field of e- Government (or public administration) for formalizing e- Government system design, trying to extract a formal definition of transparency in public administration from former studies on transparency, and analyzing if the design of e-Government systems satisfies transparency related properties.

Another contribution made in this paper is that we propose a digital right management license language (Public Administration License Language, called PALL as well) for e-Government systems, especially for using it to guarantee the transparency related properties in e-Government system design. Classical digital right license languages are applied to electronic “downloading”, payment and rendering of artistic works, while we extend the concept of license to cover work authorization in public government. The digital works are public government documents in this context. As digital right license for artistic works seeks to safeguard against privacy and to ensure proper payment for the rights to render these works, PALL seeks to ensure transparent and professional “good governance”.

Keywords
Public Administration, Formal Methods, the OTS/CafeOBJ Method, Domain Engineering, License Language.
Authors
Xiaoyi Chen, Weiqiang Kong, Kokichi Futatsugi
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#7
;  Charles Crichton, Jim Davies, Jeremy Gibbons, Steve Harris, and Aadya Shukla
ID
#7
Abstract

This paper explains how semantic frameworks can be used to support successful e-Government initiatives by connecting system design to a shared understanding of interactions and processes. It shows how metadata standards and repositories can be used to establish and maintain such an understanding, and how they can be used in the automatic generation and instantiation of components and services. It includes an account of a successful implementation at an international level, and a brief review of related approaches.

Keywords
Semantic web, Ontology, Metadata, Model-driven
Authors
Charles Crichton, Jim Davies, Jeremy Gibbons, Steve Harris, and Aadya Shukla
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#8
;  Andreas Ekelhart, Stefan Fenz, Thomas Neubauer, Edgar Weippl
ID
#8
Abstract

Compared to the last decades, we have recently seen more and more governmental applications which are provided via the Internet directly to the citizens. Due to the long history of IT systems in the governmental sector and the connection of these legacy systems to newer technologies, most governmental institutions are faced with a heterogeneous IT environment. More and more governmental duties and responsibilities rely solely on IT systems which have to be highly dependable to ensure the proper operation of these governmental services. An increasing amount of software vulnerabilities and the generally heightened physical threat level due to terror attacks and natural disasters demand for a holistic IT security approach which captures, manages, and secures the entire governmental IT infrastructure. Our contribution is (1) a novel inventory solution, (2) a mechanism to embed the virtual IT infrastructure data into a physical model provided by our security ontology, and (3) a methodology to automatically identify threatened assets and to reason on the current security status based on formal threat definitions taking software configurations and physical locations into account. A prototypical implementation of the aforementioned concepts shows how these concepts help governmental institutions to secure their IT infrastructure in a holistic and systematic way to fortify their IT systems in an appropriate way against current and future threats.

Keywords
Security, Management
Authors
Andreas Ekelhart, Stefan Fenz, Thomas Neubauer, Edgar Weippl
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#9
;  Marijn Janssen, Hans J. (Jochen) Scholl
ID
#9
Abstract

Departments and institutions collaborate and interoperate in processes crossing their organizational boundaries. A basic prerequisite for collaboration is interoperability, which can be defined as the ability of systems to work together with other systems. The building of interoperable system requires considering governance, organizational, strategic, social and technical issues.

This tutorial and workshop is aimed at contributing to the understanding of the scope of the issues involved in e-government interoperability and solutions to address them. Interoperability has been improved at the technical level by the introduction of service-oriented architecture and web services technology, however, many research questions remain open at the semantic and pragmatic levels. Interoperation and integration also require many other aspects, which might be harder to establish than the technical underpinnings. At least, the governance of the architecture of the many organizations collaborating with each other is needed to improve interoperability.

Keywords
Interoperability, Interoperation, Integration, Enterprise Architecture, Governance, Web Services, Service-Oriented Architecture
Authors
Marijn Janssen, Hans J. (Jochen) Scholl
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#10
;  Manas Rajan Patra, Rama Krushna Das
ID
#10
Abstract

In this paper, we describe a project called SORIG (Service- Oriented Framework for Rural Information Grid) which has been undertaken specifically to address the information needs of the rural population of India. The novelty of this project is that it is geared towards integrating several existing systems built on heterogeneous platforms and operating environments under different administrative zones. In order to provide a user-centric view of the information resources and address the issue of scalability of the system, the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been used. The project aims at providing “one-stop” access to various information resources for the benefit of the rural community that constitutes the largest section of the Indian population. The paper focuses on the implementation details and also discusses about several services that are available at the moment to the rural mass.

Keywords
Service-Oriented Architecture, Rural Information Services, E-Governance
Authors
Manas Rajan Patra, Rama Krushna Das
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#11
;  Nicos L. Tsilas
ID
#11
Abstract

This paper examines the important role that intellectual property (“IP”) plays in driving innovation and interoperability in the IT industry, and recommends how governments can best promote these objectives, in particular by: (1) protecting IP; (2) avoiding technology mandates which stifle innovation and stunt economic growth and (3) promoting choice and technological neutrality in their procurement decisions and regulations.

Keywords
Open Innovation, Interoperability, Intellectual Property, Choice, Technological Neutrality, Government Procurement, Public Policy, Law, Economy, Business Models, Standards
Authors
Nicos L. Tsilas
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#12
;  Marijn Janssen
ID
#12
Abstract
Governmental service provisioning is increasingly organized around networks of agencies. These agencies have various objectives and a variety of heterogeneous types of information systems. Each agency can independently design (a set of) subsystems that should function together to provide a service. Often the collaborating organizations have various degrees of technology-readiness and different objectives and interests. The service executing depends on the weakest subsystem and total network performance need to be accounted for. Furthermore, network arrangements are likely to change and evolve over time and need to adapt to changing circumstances, whereas, the entire network’s performance is dependent on the performance of the individual departments. In this paper we investigate adaptability and accountability aspects of information systems in networks of organizations. Adaptability is the ability to deal with new environmental conditions. Accountability is the answerability for one’s actions or inactions and to be responsible for their consequences. Adaptability requires a loosely coupled structure, which can seriously hamper accountability. Accountability requires tight integration and clear processes. We analyzed the adaptability and accountability aspects in two case studies. The case studies demonstrate that both requirements are not necessarily conflicting and can be complimentary. More research is necessary on designing architectures which are able to meet the adaptability and accountability requirements at the same time.
Keywords
Flexibility, Adaptability, Accountability, Coordination, Service- Oriented Architecture, Orchestration, Information Architecture, Public Service Networks, Interorganizational Networks
Authors
Marijn Janssen
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#13
;  Stacy Avery Baird
ID
#13
Abstract

The article describes the five facets of the interoperability ecosystem and offers insight into a constructive role for governments in facilitating each aspect individually, as well as in promoting the interoperability ecosystem as a whole.

Keywords
Interoperability, Government, Standards, Social Theory, Culture, Politics, Society, Law, Economy, Public Policy
Authors
Stacy Avery Baird
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#14
;  Maria A. Wimmer, Roland Traunmüller
ID
#14
Abstract

The public sector is dealing with information and knowledge resources by and large. Many activities and results are of the nature of information and knowledge. However, there is a big lack of a clear and comprehensive understanding of how knowledge and information can be used effectively and under the conditions of public sector activity, compliance to laws and privacy rules. In addition, the understanding of what ICT systems can support the huge amount of knowledge existing in the public sector most effectively is still poor.

The tutorial and workshop at ICEGOV2007 will contribute to a better understanding of knowledge management requirements of public administration and the available solutions. The tutorial will teach the fundamentals of knowledge management techniques including the use of Enterprise Architectures and ontologies within government for knowledge and information sharing, planning and interoperability. The workshop session will feature four papers and discussions related to state-of-the-art applications of knowledge management in the government domain, tools and techniques for knowledge management, enterprise architectures and ontologies.

Keywords
Knowledge Management, Knowledge Structuring, Architectures
Authors
Maria A. Wimmer, Roland Traunmüller
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#15
;  Stephen F. King, Paul Brown
ID
#15
Abstract

UK local governments have invested heavily in ICT in recent years to improve public service delivery. Most local governments now operate contact centres and websites to exchange information and transactions with citizens. But the aspirations of central government go much further – to service “transformation” – and the expectation that citizens and communities will be actively engaged in service design and delivery. In parallel with this new political agenda, technological developments are enabling users to create their own online fora, and to generate their own content. These fora often address public service areas, such as healthcare, crime and education. This paper presents an evaluation of one of the first citizen-driven systems for local public service improvement in the UK: FixMyStreet.com (FMS). The system enables citizens to report, view or discuss local problems such as graffiti, fly tipping, broken paving slabs or street lighting, and to track their resolution by the local government concerned. The system went live in February 2007. FMS has attracted over 3000 problem reports and updates in its first six months, and is viewed very favourably by the citizens surveyed here. But many problems reported to the site remain “unfixed” with status “unknown”. Local government officers voice a number of concerns: the site duplicates their own websites; they cannot report fixes directly to ensure the information is up-to-date; nor can they manage user expectations regarding service performance. And the site has no “sense of virtual community” (SOVC) [1], with individuals posting in isolation without the support of fellow citizens to amplify their voices or to contribute to problem resolution. The paper concludes by combining the concept of SOVC, factors identified as encouraging growth in online communities, and the example of a successful London community website, BRAIN, to suggest possible future developments for FMS and for public service fora in general.

Keywords
Virtual Community, Local Government, Citizen Voice, Public Service Transformation, Electronic Government
Authors
Stephen F. King, Paul Brown
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#16
;  Adamantios Koumpis, Marios Chatzidimitriou, Apostels Fondas, Vassilios Peristeras
ID
#16
Abstract

In this paper we present an initiative that is lead by ALTEC Research, which is a part of the work carried out in the European IST Project OneStopGov (http://www.onestopgov-project.org). It follows the logic of the 100 $ laptop and builds on experiences and lessons of the latter to improve the situation in the addressed field. More specifically we promote the idea of a truly low cost and generic e-Government solution that will be open for download as an integrated product and service suite that can be purchased and used for free or with an extreme low cost (similar to the 100 dollar laptop) so that some basic costs for running the promotional campaign can be subsidised. The successful realisation of our vision, depends not only on marketing a cheap product, but also on ensuring that the process of its adaptation by the potential deployment parties will stay on affortable levels.

Keywords
E-Government Portal Technologies, Adoption Patterns, Low-Cost Solutions for Global e-Government
Authors
Adamantios Koumpis, Marios Chatzidimitriou, Apostels Fondas, Vassilios Peristeras
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#17
;  Josef Makolm, Silke Weiß, Doris Reisinger
ID
#17
Abstract

Efficient and effective knowledge management plays an increasingly important role in knowledge-intensive organizations. In such organizations knowledge workers require a certain degree of freedom in structuring their own tasks [3]. This essential freedom often conflicts with the organization’s need of standardization, control and transparency [5]. The vision of the research project DYONIPOS (DYnamic Ontology based Integrated Process OptimiSation) is to resolve this dilemma by automatically supporting knowledge workers with the required knowledge just in time, while avoiding additional work and violations of the knowledge worker’s privacy. Furthermore DYONIPOS will support knowledge organizations by developing an organizational knowledge database, supporting the management of the developed processes and knowledge basis and visualizing workflow and processes. DYONIPOS sets up a context-sensitive, intelligent and agile assistant based on semantic and generic knowledge discovery technologies [5].

This article is structured as follows: Section 1 addresses the relation between the applied approach and the challenge in e- Government and summarizes the aims of the research project DYONIPOS. In Section 2 the semantic and knowledge discovery technologies used are presented. The paper concludes with the presentation of the use-case project, showing its current results.

Keywords
Knowledge Management, Knowledge Work Support, Semantic Technologies, Research Project DYONIPOS, Use-Case, Public Administration
Authors
Josef Makolm, Silke Weiß, Doris Reisinger
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#18
;  Maria A. Wimmer
ID
#18
Abstract

E-participation has become an important topic of research and development. DEMO-net, an EC-funded Network of Excellence within the 6th Framework Program of the EC, investigates this field of research and practice. To provide the knowledge gathered in the project in a structured way to different audiences, a (virtual) centre of excellence shall be developed and implemented. Such a knowledge portal shall serve as a central entry point for the various stakeholders to a) learn about the field e-participation and its characteristics from a scientific perspective, b) to provide an instrument to further structure the field, c) to thematically cluster projects and knowledge, and at the same time d) to provide a practical instrument for the users to overview the projects and knowledge in the field. The virtual resource centre shall enable stakeholders to find relevant information and knowledge on e- participation in an effective way. To structure that information and to provide it in a reasonable way, an e-participation ontology seems to be a proper concept. The contribution will introduce a draft of the e-participation ontology, which is being developed among partners in the project. The ontology is based on scientific findings which have been developed along the first period’s activities in the project.

Keywords
E-participation; Ontology; Virtual Resource Centre
Authors
Maria A. Wimmer
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#19
;  Theresa A. Pardo, Yuanfu Jiang
ID
#19
Abstract

The role of information and information technology in the transformation of public agencies is well understood to be central. The challenge governments face is understanding the nature of that role and leveraging it in the process of governmental transformation. The tutorial and the workshop sessions focused on this topic will examine organizational transformation in the public sector, and in particular the role of ICTs in that transformation process. Issues to be covered include: new models of organizational structures in government, capability assessment, and cross-boundary information sharing. Both will focus on extending current understanding of the role of information and information technology as part of government transformation as well as the impact of it on those transformation processes. This paper introduces the topics to be covered in the tutorial and provides an overview of the papers to be presented in the workshop.

Keywords
Government, Electronic Governance, Regulation, Knowledge Sharing, Cross-Boundary Information Sharing, Transformation, Management
Authors
Theresa A. Pardo, Yuanfu Jiang
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#20
;  Vassilis Meneklis, Christos Douligeris
ID
#20
Abstract

In this paper we argue that attentive observation of the evolution of e-Government can result in the identification of patterns that affect this process in a deep, subconscious and recursive way. These patterns can be used to enhance the contemporary modelling methodologies of information systems which play a crucial role in their overall efficiency. In this respect, we analyze this evolution from a structurational perspective focusing on the structuring through services and on the structuring through technologies. Through our analysis we discover modelling concepts that pervade design attempts for e-Government systems to date. Finally, we suggest an extension to an existing modelling framework (the ISO Reference Model for Distributed Processing Systems – ISO RM-ODP) which is established on the identified concepts and their corresponding structuring rules that we have defined based on our experiences. These conceptual extensions are put to use in the modelling phase of a European e-Government project (SWEB).

Keywords
Architectural Modelling, E-Government, RM-ODP, Structuration Theory
Authors
Vassilis Meneklis, Christos Douligeris
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#21
;  Lei Zheng
ID
#21
Abstract

The State Council, China’s cabinet, enacted its Open Government Information Regulations in April 2007. This paper examines the political, economic and administrative motivations for the enactment of the regulation, and then explores the potential legal, institutional, administrative, social and economic barriers for the implementation of the regulation.

Keywords
Open Government Information, China, Regulation, Enactment and Implementation, Information Policy
Authors
Lei Zheng
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#22
;  Shuhua (Monica) Liu, Raya Fidel
ID
#22
Abstract
With the retirement of large groups of senior employees from public sectors in USA, valuable institutional and operational knowledge are also lost when these knowable individuals leave the organization. Although advanced information systems are implemented in public sectors to retain valuable knowledge in the organization, researchers repetitively found that gaps exist between what senior members know and what is available in the system for newcomers to use. How to retain knowledge held by senior employees in the organization becomes a huge challenge faced by public sector management. This study argues that when using mobile information systems to facilitate fieldworkers’ task performance, public sectors need to pay close attention to three factors that might influence knowledge retaining and information reuse: Knowledge tacitness, Criteria of information relevance when it is related to specific tasks, and roles played by active employees, based on observations and interviews with employees using mobile information devices here in a public sector in the Northwest of the US. Furthermore, the conflict between lower management’s perception on use of mobile devices and local operation priority is cited as one of the leading reasons why many information systems fail to serve as the main information tank for organizational sustainability.
Keywords
Aging Workforce Management, Knowledge Sharing, Employee Motivation, Organizational Commitment, Business Process Reengineering, Information Systems, Workflow Analysis, Organizational Communication
Authors
Shuhua (Monica) Liu, Raya Fidel
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#23
;  Hisham M. E. Abdelsalam, Hatem ElKadi
ID
#23
Abstract

Egypt has achieved considerable steps in the use of ICT in administration since the mid 80s. The Egyptian e-Government program - formulated and launched in 2000 - operates on two major axes: (1) providing services through new and easy channels, and (2) updating the systems of governmental work. Since its start, the program developed several pilot projects to probe their feasibility. Many of these projects matured and are currently in the roll out phase. This paper presents work done in one of these projects; work and decision making enhancement in the Investment Department in Matrouh Governorate. The project involved three areas for enhancement: (1) re-engineering of business processes, (2) a Management Information System (MIS) for the governorate administration, and (3) a Geographical Information System (GIS). The paper – briefly - discusses how information and communication technologies were deployed to enhance decision making in one governmental entity in Egypt.

Keywords
Re-engineering, Decision support, GIS, MIS, Investment Planning
Authors
Hisham M. E. Abdelsalam, Hatem ElKadi
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#24
;  Tryggvi Björgvinsson, Helgi Thorbergsson
ID
#24
Abstract

The Icelandic government is about to release its policy on free and open source software. Many governments around the world have either already released a similar policy or have one planned. The policy of the Icelandic government deals with both the use and the development of free and open source software.

This paper takes a close look at the free and open source software policies, particularly the Icelandic one, from a software development perspective. The goal is to show how governments can utilize free and open source software when customized software is required. The paper also touches upon licensing issues for free and open source software by discussing the European Union Public License.

Governmental project management and services of small software companies and the free and open source community are the focal points of the research. The basis of the research is the i2010 policy framework of the European Commission. The paper concludes by proposing a suitable methodology to use for governmental software development and recommending tools that foster both development and management, with emphasis on the latter.

Keywords
e-Government, Free and Open Source Software, Software Development
Authors
Tryggvi Björgvinsson, Helgi Thorbergsson
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#25
;  Rajiv Shah, Jay Kesan, Andrew Kennis
ID
#25
Abstract

In 2003, Massachusetts embarked on a policy to transition to open standards for information technology. This policy led Massachusetts to switch the format of its electronic documents for its public records from a proprietary, to an open standard. This article documents this historic process, as Massachusetts was the first government to switch its information technology over to open standards. The article also analyzes the Massachusetts experience to develop a set of lessons learned. The resulting guidance should aid governments that are considering policies that encourage or favor open standards.

Keywords
Standards, Public Policy, Open Standards
Authors
Rajiv Shah, Jay Kesan, Andrew Kennis
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#26
;  Jaijit Bhattacharya, P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan, Shantanu Gupta
ID
#26
Abstract

Present paper attempts to examine the social impact of adoption of Office Open Extensible Markup Language (OOXML), a proposed open standard format for documents, in India. It suspects that adoption will increase the cost to access information. It highlights the need for adopting open standard in the ICT developmental efforts and tackling technological lock-in.

Keywords
Open Standards, India, e-Governance, OOXML, ODF, Word Processing
Authors
Jaijit Bhattacharya, P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan, Shantanu Gupta
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#27
;  Chen Yongxi
ID
#27
Abstract

The government of Hong Kong has achieved remarkable staged results according to its comprehensive E-government blueprint. At the same time, it is its statutory responsibility to protect privacy and personal data. However, there has been a succession of incidents of unauthorized leakage onto the Internet of personal data held by the agencies of Hong Kong government since 2006. These incidents occurred during the implementation of E- government, and aroused the public’s deep concern of their privacy rights impacted by the Internet and the security of their personal data held by government agencies. This paper studies two typical cases of personal data leakage, one arising during the internal outsourcing process, the other occurring in external online service to citizens. It analyzes how the existing privacy regime addresses privacy intrusion and whether the redress is sufficient, before exploring the defects of the remedy system as well as the ways of improving legal protection of personal data within E-government environment.

Keywords
Privacy Law, Personal Data Protection, Legal Deficiency, e- Government, Hong Kong
Authors
Chen Yongxi
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#28
;  Ehab Moustafa
ID
#28
Abstract

This paper reports the experience of adopting the Public-Private Partnership concept in modern governance and discusses issues like Models for Electronic Public Services (EPS), Government Collaboration Patterns, and Models for Citizen Engagement in the context of delivering high quality government services in complex environment. The Ministry of Labour (MoL) of the UAE is the federal agency responsible of managing a labor market dominated by foreign workers - 95% of the work force. Managing a labor market of such nature is not an easy task. Between the offer and the demand, the government needs to regulate the market place in a way that is beneficiary for all players and serve the national interest in the first place. MoL is the sole authority controlling the issuance of permits to businesses to bring in foreign workers – import manpower – on temporary bases. Dealing with a population from all parts of the world with such a huge variations of legal documents make it quasi impossible to have an error free service. To review, verify and authenticate all types of documents MoL had to count on the private sector help. MoL created a network of certified service offices that act as a buffer area between MoL’s services seekers and MoL organization. Smart Forms were developed in collaboration with another private sector ICT services provider, who provides all technical system infrastructure investments and works on profit-sharing principles. Authentication of documents is carried out by another private sector partner.

For all these partnerships to work effectively and efficiently, a major structural reform in MoL had to be carried out. The transformation from a structure that is geared to manage the entire processes of service delivery to a completely new structure that works in partnership with other non-governmental entities -and make it works- was not an easy operation.

New business concepts needed to be invented, examined and developed in special testing environments. Customization of services was another area of the reform program that was key success factor. The knowledge management program and its institutionalization was one of the pivotal axes of the transformational program. A new business architecture was developed and adopted my MoL to respond to the challenges facing it as a policy making and regulatory authority in labour market

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management in UAE.

The transformation needed to be very carefully planned, managed and executed without any interruption of service, and has considered all internal and external engagements and commitments. An educate change management program was a key factor for the success of the transformation process.

With a successful implementation of PPP, MoL today is providing all its customers with effective online services, within an efficient setup.

Keywords
Private Public Partnership, PPP, Parallel Organization, Change Management, Governance Model, e-Government, Business Innovations, Business Transformation, Strategic Planning
Authors
Ehab Moustafa
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#29
;  Yu, Chien-Chih
ID
#29
Abstract

Creating values for citizens, businesses, as well as governments is the mission for launching e-government strategies and services. The effectiveness of e-government strategies depends heavily on the cause-and-effect relationships among strategic objectives, action plans, as well as performance outcomes identified and specified during the strategy formulation, project implementation, and performance measurement processes. The goal of this paper is to propose a value-based strategic management framework and process for supporting efficient and effective planning, implementation, as well as evaluation of e-government strategies. In the proposed process, concepts and methodologies including the balanced scorecard, strategy map, and strategy gap are adapted and integrated to illustrate the constructs, activities, and procedures of e-government strategic management.

Keywords
Value Creation, Strategic Management, E-Government Strategies, Balanced Scorecard, Strategy Map, Strategy Gap
Authors
Yu, Chien-Chih
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#30
;  Jaijit Bhattacharya, Richa Singla
ID
#30
Abstract

The Indian economy has been growing at a fast pace for the past few years but not all have benefited by this growth. Globalization has given a tremendous opportunity to grow but this growth has been restricted to a chosen few. This has resulted in an increasing gap between the haves and have-nots of the society. Microfinance can help reduce this disparity and lead to a more equitable growth of the country.

Technology has grown tremendously in the past decade and has changed the way the various sectors operate today. It has become one of the key sustainers and drivers for any sector. It is now playing a key sustainer role in microfinance sector as well. Many technological vendors are coming up with low cost solutions for the sector, which can lower down the transactional costs.

Keywords
Microfinance, Technology, India
Authors
Jaijit Bhattacharya, Richa Singla
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#31
;  Helgi Thorbergsson, Tryggvi Björgvinsson, Ársæll Valfells
ID
#31
Abstract

This paper examines differences of using proprietary software and free software in electronic governance from an economic point of view. The paper identifies and highlights key areas in network economy, where free and open source software can drastically cut costs both short-term and long-term, if used instead of proprietary software.

The research examines both governmental use and development of software and proposes a way for governments to manage free and open source software projects in order to lower costs for all agencies. The aforementioned policy is used as a basis for the research and its proposals.

Keywords
Free and Open Source Software, Open Standards, Network Economy
Authors
Helgi Thorbergsson, Tryggvi Björgvinsson, Ársæll Valfells
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#32
;  Malathi Subramanian
ID
#32
Abstract

In India women's ability to participate in the country's rapid progress towards e-governance is impeded by the low status ascribed to women and girls in Indian society. This is reflected in the gender disparity in many sectors with women in a disadvantaged position in India. Extreme poverty and poor IT infrastructure in rural areas, where the majority of Indian women reside, further restrict women's access to education and information technology. Such an iniquitous position of women has contributed enormously to the slow pace of development in India. The issue of gender equity is not a supplement to development and e-governance but central to both. While the e- governance initiatives are theoretically comprehensive and aimed at inclusion of every citizen, the last digital node, unless the gender perspective is taken into account, a huge gap is bound to remain between the theory and practice of e-governance in India with attendant effects on development. Despite the many e- governance initiatives and massive investments in information communication technologies (ICTs) in India, a gender gap might exclude or restrict women to be equal partners and beneficiaries of the e- governance initiatives.

Keywords
Keywords Information Society, Information Communication Technology, Gender, Empowerment, Participation, Citizenship
Authors
Malathi Subramanian
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#33
;  Pietro Mercatali, Francesco Romano, Roberto Fabrizi, Giuseppe Becchi
ID
#33
Abstract

The TeleP@B (Electronic Technologies for the Participation to the Budget) project aims at the creation of new democratic participation in placing side by side traditional decision making processes concerning the theme of the shared building of investment priorities of municipal budgets, especially in those disadvantaged geographical mountain areas of Tuscany which are at risk of digital alienation. This paper illustrates the project's first phase, concluding with a feasibility study on the analysis and structuring of documents and the processes for budget compilation by means of the new technologies of workflow management and content management targeting citizen participation in the process.

Keywords
E-Participation, Technologies, Workflow Management, Content Management, Town Budget
Authors
Pietro Mercatali, Francesco Romano, Roberto Fabrizi, Giuseppe Becchi
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#34
;  B. Joon Kim, Andrea Kavanaugh, Manuel Pérez-Quiñones
ID
#34
Abstract

Civic engagement in politics and public affairs lies at the heart of participatory models of democracy [26]. Prior studies have found that politically interested citizens use information and communication technology (ICT) to facilitate and sometimes augment their political and civic engagement [17][8][29][15] [16][34][22][21]. In the areas of political expression and civic engagement support, local groups’ ICTs play important roles for communication and information sharing [16]. Do these findings also apply to young adults in local groups? In particular, earlier research about young adults’ political participation shows that they increasingly turn to ICT to gather political information and as a channel of engagement [31]. This study examines the interplay of individual and local group factors for young adults by using household survey data from the town of Blacksburg, VA and environs in 2005. In this research, we present findings about who these young adults are and what they are doing with ICT for political and civic engagement in local groups. Our findings show that local group affiliation is positively associated with online political and civic engagement among young adults. Furthermore, young adults who are affiliated with local groups are more likely to report that the Internet has helped them become more involved in local issues that interest them. For a more in depth investigation of young adults affiliated with local groups, this paper suggests a framework of multilevel analysis.

Keywords
E-democracy, E-governance, Information and Communication Technology, Political and Civic Engagement, Young Adults, Multilevel Analysis
Authors
B. Joon Kim, Andrea Kavanaugh, Manuel Pérez-Quiñones
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#35
;  Mohamed Shareef
ID
#35
Abstract

In this paper we describe the concepts of government, governance, reform, e-Government and development of e- Government. We present a case of a referendum in Maldives and the use of ICT by the Office of the Commissioner of Elections (OCE). We found that the OCE was in the initial stages, of e- Government development which was exemplified by publishing of information and simple communication. We noted that the lack of human and financial resources and limitations of national ICT infrastructure were the main challenges in the development of e- Government for OCE. We also noted that the currently e- Government project to provide a shared services platform and national connectivity has the potential to help the country leap frog through the stages of e-Government development.

The opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of NCIT, OCE or the Government of Maldives.

Keywords
E-Government, Stages of e-Government, Maldives
Authors
Mohamed Shareef
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#36
;  Chang Boon Patrick Lee, U Lan Edith Lei
ID
#36
Abstract

The Macao government and many governments worldwide are now developing and using the Internet to provide information and services to their citizens. These electronic services, often referred as e-government services, provide citizens with greater convenience in terms of accessing information and transacting services. To implement e-government successfully, it is important to determine the factors related to its acceptance. The purpose of this research was to assess and test the factors that are related to e- government acceptance. We drew on results obtained from prior studies on technology acceptance, e-commerce, and diffusion of innovation, and applied them to the context of e-government services in Macao. We gathered cross-sectional data from a questionnaire survey to test the factors that are hypothesized to be related to e-government adoption. The results of our analyses found that trust and compatibility explained more than 60 percent of the variance in intention to adopt e-government services in Macao. We discussed the implications of the results.

Keywords
E-Government, Compatibility, Trust, Technology Acceptance
Authors
Chang Boon Patrick Lee, U Lan Edith Lei
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#37
;  Maniam Kaliannan, Halimah Awang, Murali Raman
ID
#37
Abstract

All around the world, the quest to improve government service delivery is becoming an important agenda for most governments. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and the Internet in particular have opened new possibilities for the government and the governed. Successful delivery of online services has rapidly become an important measure of effective public sector management and this has made many governments to deploy Electronic Government (e-Government) as a tool to achieve this vision. The dual objectives of e-Government are to reinvent the government of Malaysia in terms of service delivery through the use of ICT and to catalyze the successful development of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) with ICT as one of the leading sectors of the economy. This paper provides the various initiatives taken by the government in implementing e- Government projects as well as the issues, challenges and benefits derived. A brief case study on electronic procurement as one of the projects in e-Government initiative will be presented.

Keywords
Multimedia Super Corridor, e-Government, e-Procurement
Authors
Maniam Kaliannan, Halimah Awang, Murali Raman
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#38
;  Hakikur Rahman
ID
#38
Abstract

e-Government generally refers to the government’s use of information technologies (such as LANs, WANs, the Internet, Intranet, and mobile computing) to exchange information and services with citizens, businesses, general public and other arms of government. e-Readiness refers to a country's ability to take advantage of the Internet as an engine of economic growth and human development. In this aspect, several benchmarking indices are available at the macro (also called global) level by the UNPAN, World Bank, EU and others, and e-Readiness indices at the macro level are constructed primarily for ranking countries.

These are concerned with the global digital divide, i.e., the gap between countries that have access to ICT and those that do not, mainly because of differences in income, education, culture, etc. are being taken into consideration. However, it has been realized that a micro-level measurable criteria needs to be developed, though they already exists in discrete format, which have been developed by institutions and academics. At micro level, performance measuring tools needs to be developed to dictate appropriate design, planning, implementation, and monitoring criteria so that relevant programmes could really become essential component of society development, and at the same time contribute to human development.

It is increasingly clear that for a country to put ICT for effective use, it must be "e-ready" in terms of infrastructure, the accessibility of ICT to the population at large, and the effect of the legal and regulatory framework on ICT use. A key indicator of e- readiness is infrastructure and in developing countries this is often a key challenge to the advancement of society. There are many elements to e-readiness such infrastructure, telecommunications, Internet connectivity and skills set as obtained from various sources. At the same time, infrastructure also refers to utilities such as roads, electricity, water and sanitation and these are all relevant components for any ICT4D-social enterprise setting up operations in developing counties. If the digital divide is going to be narrowed, all of these issues must be addressed in a coherent and achievable strategy so that they can be tailored to meet the

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local needs of particular countries.

A good fact is that developing country leaders can use e-readiness assessment to help them measure and plan for ICT integration. It can help them focus their efforts from within, and identify areas where external support or aid is required. But an assessment alone is insufficient, and decision-makers face four key challenges in making effective use of this tool. First, they need to understand how ICT can help their countries achieve economic and social benefits, and set achievable goals accordingly. Second, they must take concrete steps toward effective and sustainable ICT uses that will help their countries realize their objectives. Third, there must be measurable criteria to be developed, so that their implementations can be ranked, and finally, an appropriate data mining solution needs to be established for taking necessary steps in reconciliation, management and future expansion. This paper would like to synthesize various measurable criteria and performance measuring tools in terms of e-Government readiness and at the same time would be performing a few analytical assessments and try to put forward recommendations on successful implementation of e-Government, especially focusing developing countries.

Keywords
e-Government, e-Governance, e-Government Readiness, Digital Divide, ICT, e-Readiness
Authors
Hakikur Rahman
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#39
;  Helani Galpaya, Rohan Samarajiva, Shamistra Soysa
ID
#39
Abstract

Much attention has been paid to the use of ICTs to improve the delivery of government services to citizens in developing countries. Government and donor funds have adopted two strategies in parallel: (i) the re-engineering and automating of government services, and (ii) the installation of telecenters (community Internet access centers) for citizens to access reengineered government “e-Gov” services.

The model of delivering e-Gov via the Internet has major drawbacks as shown by survey data representing 397 million people at the Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) in India, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand. First, only 49% have even heard of the Internet and only 2.6% have used it [15]. Second, it will take a lot more time and significant funds to roll-out enough telecenters to cover the BOP sufficiently. Third, most telecenters fail, while the successful ones are sustained by revenues from non-Internet services such as voice calls, fax and photocopying. But even these revenue streams may dwindle – according to our survey, over 40% of current BOP non-owners plan to purchase a phone within 2 years. They will spend their already-limited communications budgets on phones they own, not at a telecenter.

By viewing the telephone as the end-device for e-service delivery, implementers can automate those parts of a government process that can deliver value quickly, through “smaller” (less complicated, therefore less likely to fail) applications. By not seeking to re-engineer entire government departments, these projects face less resistance to change from public-sector employees. Given that over 90% of those at the BOP use phones already [15], significant use is more likely if the necessary attention is paid to language, design and publicity.

The Internet, accessed at a telecenter, and sophisticated e- Government systems will play a role in providing “higher-end” citizen services, for example submitting a passport application online with an uploaded digital photograph. But at a time when the Internet is barely reaching 10.3 million people at the BOP in these countries, the paper argues that phones are the cheaper,

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more immediate and ubiquitous tool for Asian governments to inform, transact and interact with almost 400 million of their most needy citizens.

The paper presents an alternative, telephone-centric model for electronic delivery of public services citizens. It draws on research conducted by LIRNEasia in 2006 and previously published as well as unpublished e-Gov case studies.

Keywords
Government, Mobile, Transactions, Markets, Poor, Telecenter
Authors
Helani Galpaya, Rohan Samarajiva, Shamistra Soysa
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#40
;  Ganesh Prasad Adhikari
ID
#40
Abstract

The rapid improvements in information and communication technologies are revolutionizing the way modern governments deliver services to the citizens. Nepal, a developing country has also taken steps towards e-government transformation, similar to the governments in developed countries.

In 2006, the Nepal Government made public its plan for initiating master plan to reduce cost and time of service recipients by improving public service delivery. The Government and responsible agencies for ICT are making efforts for the successful implementation of this plan. On the basis of my experience of more than 15 years as a government ICT officer, I see some key issues to implement e-Government master plan in Nepal.

First of all, the Infrastructure and Access, a key element of the master plan is in poor state in the country. In Nepal, less the 1% of the population is using Internet and less than 10% people are connected to fix or wireless telephone network. One of the main reasons behind it is due to lack of adequate communication and electricity in the country. The transmission networks which include backbone link, microwave radio network, optical fibre network also have issues such as low quality and availability, frequent trouble in link, low capacity of links. With the present infrastructure, it is difficult to move ahead the plan.

Technology adoption is another barrier while introducing digital devices in Nepalese context. Many senior level officers are nearly blind with computer technology. They do not have adequate awareness and even some of them do not want to know the benefit of ICT. The decision making officers in most of the offices are unaware with the advantage of e-Governance. Most civil servants who are enjoying the traditional non-digital technology have an attitude which is resistive to change. Those who are getting extra benefits think that they will not be able to hold the beneficial position after introducing new technology, hence are not friendly with digital devices.

Besides these issues, the managing factor also challenging in the implementation of the plan. The key person's strong will to stand on behalf of the project, fostering domestic ICT workforce, introduction of fund mechanism that can attain large scale

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investment are some other major points to be considered. The measure factors that assess the progress to verify whether the e- Government plan is implemented in the purposed direction, consistently and continuously are also important factors.

Keywords
Nepal, E-governance, Implementation, Challenges, Issues
Authors
Ganesh Prasad Adhikari
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#41
;  Mahbubul Alam
ID
#41
Abstract

Widespread global acceptance of electronic governance bears testimony to the observation that e-governance has rocked the governing systems in the world to a degree. E-governance is the information and communication technology (ICT) enabled system of government service delivery for achieving good governance. Bangladesh government has initiated and implemented many ICT projects in different ministries to build basic infrastructure, to impart IT literacy to the employees, to develop skilled manpower and to make some of the services IT enabled. These ICT projects are the manifestation of the government that journey has started with due emphasis on ICT at the state level that pave the way to implement e-governance in Bangladesh. E-governance promises transparency, shortened service delivery time, alleviation of poverty, corruption, and strengthening of democratic practices through people’s participation, and support for good governance. This paper focuses on the scope and challenges along with some recommendations on how to implement e-governance successfully in Bangladesh.

Keywords
Good Governance, Infrastructure, Challenges, ICT
Authors
Mahbubul Alam
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#42
;  O. Jide Falabi
ID
#42
Abstract

This paper is a contribution to the ongoing debate on the appropriate mechanisms for good governance particularly in developing countries. It focuses on the practice of and solutions for e-governance implementation. It highlights benefits and challenges of implementing e-governance while considering factual specificity and peculiarities of developing countries. Experiences about the implementation of e-governance in a tertiary institution - the Lagos State University (LASU) are presented. LASU is ranked, within the first three leading universities, out of over 80 tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This was achieved thanks to the leadership of LASU Administration, who recognizes the benefits of e-governance.

Keywords
e-Government, e-Governance, Developing Countries
Authors
O. Jide Falabi
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#43
;  Jaijit Bhattacharya, Sourabh Suman
ID
#43
Abstract

The paper analyses existing open source licenses with the aim of choosing a license that is suitable for e-Governance projects. A method is presented for systematically choosing the most suitable license, which is applied to a selection of licenses, among which the Common Development and Distribution License is found to be the most suitable. An appropriate Open Source policy is extremely important for a sustainable e-Governance program

Keywords
Licenses, Open Source, e-Governance
Authors
Jaijit Bhattacharya, Sourabh Suman
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#44
;  Piyush Gupta
ID
#44
Abstract

Electronic Governance (e-Governance) has received a tremendous interest world over. Significant amount of money is being put into making e-Governance a reality. A number of Projects are being taken up at various levels, it therefore becomes important to make reasonable means of assessment to see whether the projects have achieved or are going to achieve their planned goals. Proper assessment of these projects gives us crucial learning on the kind of changes needed to be done to make them successful. This paper is based on the research work being done by the author. The paper puts across the key issues and challenges in assessing e-Gov projects and propose a model which has been piloted in one of the assessment studies at the national level in India.

Keywords
E-Government, Assessment, Framework, Stakeholders, Best practices, Results, Enablers
Authors
Piyush Gupta
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#45
;  Timothy Mwololo Waema, Winnie Mitullah
ID
#45
Abstract

The potential for ICT to positively contribute to good governance has been known for a long time and has been the subject of many articles and reports, but very little concrete empirical evidence of the effects of ICT on governance, and how these effects should be evaluated, exist. The situation is even worse when we consider ICT and governance in local governments. The case study reported in this paper is based on an e-governance outcome evaluation framework that is being followed by Local Governance and ICTs Research Network for Africa (LOG-IN Africa). This framework draws on existing literature on e-government, good governance, and results-based management. Data for the case study was collected through surveys, key informant interviews, focus group discussions and review of relevant documents in two municipal councils in Kenya. The focus was on the perspectives of consumers of the services provided by the councils. Data was analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods.

The preliminary results show that the integrated financial management system implementation had modest improvements in most indicators of the following good governance constructs: participation, responsiveness, transparency, accountability, and efficiency and effectiveness. Given the modest improvements in good governance associated with the implementation of the system in the two municipal councils and the governance challenges in implementing a similar system in central government, the paper recommends, among other things, that local governments could be used to pilot complex e-governance initiatives and lessons learned used to scale up at national level.

Keywords
E-Governance, E-Government, ICT, Governance, Monitoring & Evaluation, Indicators
Authors
Timothy Mwololo Waema, Winnie Mitullah
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#46
;  Carola Pension, Ricardo Fenochietto
ID
#46
Abstract

This paper presents the rationale in theory and practical implementation of a system for identification and exchanging information. This system allows governments to confront the problem of informality, tax evasion and social expenditure jointly, with important economies of scale, because the data or some personal information can be optimally used for both objectives increasing social benefits while decreasing costs.

This system is about e-government inside the government itself. Hence it is concerned with E-management – the use of information technology to improve the management of government, from streamlining business processes to maintaining electronic records, to improving the flow and integration of information

Keywords
Electronic Governance, Electronic Management, Information Exchange, Latin America, Tax and Social Equity
Authors
Carola Pension, Ricardo Fenochietto
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#47
;  Madan P. Pariyar
ID
#47
Abstract
  Although Nepal stands at the lower rung in the global scenario of ICT, there have been discernible developments in the ICT sector in the recent past. The telecommunication facilities have improved remarkably. The academic institutions/universities producing ICT professionals/human resources have expanded. The communication technologies, both electronic and print media, have extended their access to general people. Uses of the Internet, emails and computers are gaining in popularity. Telecenters are widening their outreach. Several e-Government applications are being introduced. Noteworthy among the country’s recent e-Government initiatives is Nepal’s e-Government Master Plan, completed in November 2006. Another milestone is the preparation of an ICT Development Project which has worked out detailed investment proposals for prioritized projects. Negotiations are underway between the Government of Nepal and the Asian Development Bank for its financing and implementation arrangements. The Government of Nepal is, thus, keen and committed to promote e- Government for implementation of various G2G, G2C and G2B projects defined under respective priority areas. But the road to e-Government is not easy and straight. There are no doubt ample opportunities for national development through e- Government promotion. There are also several hurdles, problems and challenges which must be overcome for successful accomplishments of Nepal’s e-Government vision. This paper endeavors to present a holistic vision on e-Government development of Nepal.
Keywords
Nepal, e-Government, Master Plan, ICT
Authors
Madan P. Pariyar
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#48
;  Paul Kimberley
ID
#48
Abstract

Trade facilitation is a generic term applied to the procedures and technologies used to integrate domestic trade into global supply chains. While there are other aspects to trade facilitation, ICT is becoming progressively more important. The objective of ICT in this context is to replace the paper documents, original signatures, cash payments and face-to-face meetings involved in obtaining import and export approvals from government agencies, and from Customs processes. This specific application of e-Government is crucially dependent upon effective e-Governance for transparency and efficiency.

This paper discusses the importance of e-Governance mechanisms to free and fair trade, particularly through ICT interoperability and interconnectivity, data sharing through international standards, and process transparency. We illustrate the arguments by discussing the current global status of trade facilitation and the “single window” approach. One of the key lessons learned from successful trade facilitation implementations is the need to avoid “agency-centric” or “silo” approaches to systems reform. Trade facilitation, above all other e-Government initiatives, requires the cooperation of a sizeable proportion of Government agencies, in partnership with the private sector.

Since trade facilitation is conditional upon local business practices and culture, best practice models are somewhat ethereal. Academic input is generally provided through international agency publications and projects. Private sector publications tend to be limited to product descriptions and case studies (See Appendix 2 for more details). The effectiveness of ICT in trade facilitation depends upon a pragmatic approach to what is technically and financially possible at a given stage of economic development and administrative reform. Hence this paper does not discuss specific ICT issues nor does it take an academic view: rather, it is a report on the current status of trade facilitation and the route that many countries-and some trade organisations, such as ASEAN and APEC- are taking towards a practical ICT-based single window initiative.

Keywords
Trade, Single Window, Interoperability, Interconnection, e- Governance, Data Standards, Customs, Transparency, Technical Controls, Supply Chain Security
Authors
Paul Kimberley
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#49
;  Luís Velez Lapão, Rui Sousa Santos, Miguel Góis, Paulo Duarte Silva
ID
#49
Abstract

In this paper, the authors present the first results in the application of a new methodology to strategically develop the marketing and communication activities for a broad public healthcare network. It makes use of the Internet to further explore the E-Government opportunities. The impact of the proposed methodology in healthcare can represent a new front of development within E- Government serving the purpose of improving the degree of interactivity and individualization (2 Is) between the public healthcare organizations and citizens and communities, which will lead to an increase of the quality of services.

Keywords
Healthcare Internet Marketing: Developing a Communication Strategy for a Broad Healthcare Network
Authors
Luís Velez Lapão, Rui Sousa Santos, Miguel Góis, Paulo Duarte Silva
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#50
;  Abdul Nasir
ID
#50
Abstract

Administration of justice is an essential service delivered by the state to its citizens. Fair, cheap and quick dispensation of justice is the prime responsibility of the government. In this context production of prisoners before the courts of law has always been a gigantic task for various agencies of the state. Some times, the Judges dealing with the matter have to visit jails to conduct trial there, which is commonly known as jail trial. But this is to be done at the cost of adjournments of many other cases, which are listed for the relevant date by the Judges or the Magistrates. It results in wastage of time, financial loss to the public as well as to the state. It also delays decision of other judicial matters. Production of hardened and desperate criminals after their apprehension before the courts of law for the purposes of their remand and trial has always been a problem for the investigating agencies and the state. Such criminals are usually linked with the gangs, who have a tendency to attack the police personnel during the transit to manage escape of their accomplices. Many events of this nature have already happened in the past, which sometime prove tragic and result in many causalities. Special arrangement for the production of such criminals burdens the state with financial loss.

It also puts the personnel in danger with possible loss of valuable lives. In this era of terrorism and sectarian clashes, the terrorists as well as the fanatical individuals when booked become a gigantic task for the state to bring them before the Court. In past many tragic incidents have happened. A lot of machinery and financial resources are to be put-in, to observe the statutory provision while producing the terrorists and extremists before the Courts. Public disruption is another factor in such cases. There is another category of the prisoners, who are to be produced before the Courts for the purposes of extension in their judicial remand before submission of Challan. This category of prisoners infact constitute majority of the persons detained in jails. A lot of machinery, force and finance are required for their transportation from jail to the Courts and from Courts to the jail but no material progress is made in their matters due to emergency duty and protocol deployment of the police personnel. The production of prisoners and their trial through video conferencing system by using information technology (IT) and telecommunication technology can be a solution to such problems as well as a step towards good governance in developing countries like Pakistan. Through video links between jail and courts, the trial of the prisoners can be done without physical appearance in the Court, but it enables interaction between prisoner in Jail and concerned Judge, prosecutor, defense counsel and witnesses etc. present in the Court. This is not only a cost effective solution for police and district administration but will also enable speedy disposal of trial.

Keywords
Video Trial, ICT, Good Governance, Prisoner, Courts
Authors
Abdul Nasir
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#51
;  Sanjo O. Faniran, Kayode M. Olaniyan
ID
#51
Abstract

This study examines the workings of the newly established ICT- based pension system for federal civil servants in Nigeria as a model in public service delivery and finds that the ICT-based system has eliminated resource wastages, fraud, corruption, rent- seeking and even loss of life associated with the previous system. It also provides opportunities for the private sector, especially banks and investment houses, by creating wholly new financial services providers– Pension Fund Administrators (PFAs) and Pension Fund Custodians (PFCs), with attendant growth in that industry and multiplier effects on the larger economy. The study concludes by suggesting new areas of innovation among service providers and variables which are amenable to manipulation by regulators to increase efficiency in the administration of pensions and ensure that the large army of current and prospective retirees enjoy – rather than endure- life in retirement.

Keywords
E-governance, Public-Private Partnership, Nigeria, Pension Administration
Authors
Sanjo O. Faniran, Kayode M. Olaniyan
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#52
;  G P Sahu, M P Gupta, Vindhyesh N. Gupta
ID
#52
Abstract
The paper analyzes select e-government practices in India in the area of “Property Registration”. The aim of the paper is to identify the best practices in Property Respiration e-government system, and to suggest its adaptation in the other states of the country. There are four Cases taken from four different states (provinces) of India. Comparisons of these cases are carried out using SAP/LAP Analysis to pin-point the pros and cons of the cases and derive learning, analyze how this can be further improved and replicated to other state governments. Property Registration System is a very important system and most of the citizens of the country are its stakeholders. The paper concludes by mentioning suggestions and recommendations on basis of the analysis. One of the major recommendations is that there is need of rapid and progressive scaling up of the project.
Keywords
Property Registration, ICT, E-Government
Authors
G P Sahu, M P Gupta, Vindhyesh N. Gupta
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#53
;  Enkhtuya Dandar, Uyanda Sambuu, Esbold Unurkhaan, Tserenbat Purev
ID
#53
Abstract

The Government of Mongolia pays great attention to introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in all social and economic sectors. For the past years, a number of activities are implemented to enhance the use of ICT as a key tool for development. Relevant laws and regulations, policy strategic documents, in particular Concept of ICT Development of Mongolia by Year 2010, E-Mongolia National Program, and E- Government Master Plan of Mongolia were developed. Mission Statement of the e-Government Master Plan states, “e- Government improves the quality of civil service and provides transparent and efficient administration service based on knowledge with an expansion of ICT infrastructure and integration of information system”. The goals of the e- Government Master Plan are stated as:

o Toimprovetransparencyandefficiencyinpublic administration

o Toincreaseparticipationofcitizeningovernmentdecision making processes

o Toimprovenationalcompetitiveness o ToupgradecapacityofICTinfrastructure o Toenhancequalityofcivilservices[1]

Within the e-Government Master Plan, the Mongolian Tax Administration (MTA) is planning to move from its current tax information system towards E-taxation. This paper presents the current situation, lessons learnt and experience in use of ICT in Mongolian taxation, including national policies, strategies and programs, IT solutions, hardware and software, network, data management, security, human resources, and organizational initiatives. The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat) analysis and conclusions are also presented.

Keywords
Information and Communication Technology, ICT in Taxation, Electronic Governance, Tax Information System, Mongolia
Authors
Enkhtuya Dandar, Uyanda Sambuu, Esbold Unurkhaan, Tserenbat Purev
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#54
;  Daniyal Aziz, Syed Adnan Shah, Deeba Gilani
ID
#54
Abstract

National Reconstruction Information Management System (NARIMS) is a revolutionary concept designed and developed by the National Reconstruction Bureau, Government of Pakistan, to work as an aid in support of the Local Governments under the Devolution Plan. The system has been developed to address the issues and problems related to Local Government. The system helps the stakeholders in policy making decisions on topics such as basic infrastructure development, assets planning, financial management and administrative functioning. The system not only caters to the District / Tehsil level issues but addresses issues related to the grass-roots level, i.e. Union Council and Revenue Estate. In short, the system caters for solutions and practices of electronic governance, and succeeds in effectively communicating its findings to different audiences.

NARIMS is a complete software based system having an open- ended database with spatial representation. It consists of software, hardware, data and users elements, designed to meet specific planning and organizational goals. The data can be populated with attribute information pertaining to each local government department, thus creating an intelligent database related to a particular geographic area. Once the model is developed, it can be used by all applications that work with this object. Changes made to the model are automatically reflected in the applications, without any need to change application code. This makes the entire system more flexible and adaptable to changing business conditions and new technologies. Access to this type of information is extremely benificial to state, province, district, municipal agencies, researchers and general public. In addition, it can provide answers to questions that relate to economic growth, resource management, and public service delivery.

Keywords
Local Government, e-Governance, Decision Support, Asset Management, Administration, Performance Evaluation, Financial, Human Resource Management, Community Development, Information Management System, Monitoring, Geographical Information System
Authors
Daniyal Aziz, Syed Adnan Shah, Deeba Gilani
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#55
;  Imane Taoufik, Hind Kabaili, Driss Kettani
ID
#55
Abstract

The digital battle has become the most important factor of economic and social development. In fact, there is no doubt on the fact that establishing E-government systems can improve the quality of government services and enhance the citizens’ life. However, E-government projects cannot be successful if they are not adapted to the specific cultural and social needs of the users.

Taking into consideration the high illiteracy rate within the Moroccan population, we conducted our research to design an E- government portal for the old city of Fez that is accessible by the majority of the citizens especially those who are illiterate.

The objective of this research is exploring the different architectures, scenarios and technologies for designing an E- government portal that is usable and accessible by all Fez citizens whether they are literate or illiterate. Hence, the concrete output of this project is a usable graphical user interface accessible to both literate and illiterate people in order for them to interact with the static content and to use the online transactions. In the process of achieving our goal, we had to discover and create design principles and to test them with real users.

This paper describes and justifies the chosen methodology, architecture and tools that were applied in order to develop Fez e- government portal’s graphical user interface. The results of the designed graphical user interface’s testing are presented and discussed in order to assess the project’s success.

Keywords
E-Government, Graphical User Interface, Illiteracy, User Centered Design
Authors
Imane Taoufik, Hind Kabaili, Driss Kettani
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#56
;  D.C. Misra
ID
#56
Abstract

This paper attempts to trace the development of e-governance in India during last sixty years from 1947 to 2007. It conceives the development of e-governance, defined here as use of information and communication technology (ICT) in governance, in three phases: Phase I (1947-1984): Informatics-based E-government, 2. Phase II (1984-1995): Personal Computer (PC)-based E- government, and 3. Phase III (1995-2007): Web-based E- government. The development of e-governance is assessed to find if the Indian experience in e-governance has lessons for developing countries. Five lessons are drawn. First, is the adoption of the strategy of self-reliance. Second is the investment in human resource development. Third is the creation of necessary information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure for e-government. Fourth is the redefinition of e-government to make it citizen-centric and not organization-centric. Lastly, providing a set of services to citizens at one e-government portal.

Keywords
E-governance, India, Informatics-based E-government, Personal Computer (PC)-based E-government, Web-based E-government, Lessons, Developing Countries
Authors
D.C. Misra
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#57
;  Sabri Saidam
ID
#57
Abstract

Conflict is the source of pains, losses and severe anxiety. Its existence and prevalence act as major deterrence to societal achievements. Conflict for many is however, an inducer of human initiation of survival attempts, plans and policies. This is often coupled with the adaptation of mechanisms and possible innovation that serve to convert the pressure of conflict into a catalyst for human achievement in defiance of such pressure and consequent devastation.

This paper will then look into ways that made ICT a tool for survival and life continuity under conflict. It will explore the different sectoral projects which were/ are still capable of utilizing human determination to facilitate the emergence of more connected societies whose fabric becomes consolidated with the Internet and information access as well as wider dissemination of ICT into citizen's lives even on the governance level!

The paper will further project human attention in societies of conflict to ICT and the role ICT plays in bettering life quality. This will be verified by living examples from two countries deeply affected by years of wars and disputes. Such verification is to be supported by data and graphs. The paper will further show how e-governance is possible in conflict and how the e- transformation is achievable amongst societal ranks. It will therefore, attempt to devise methods to draw an inversely proportional connection between conflict and ICT dissemination.

Keywords
n/a
Authors
Sabri Saidam
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#58
;  Johanna Ekua Awotwi, George Owusu
ID
#58
Abstract

This paper explores the challenges of e-governance in Africa using Ghana as a case study. It notes that while e-government may promote good governance and economic growth, critical challenges such as weak infrastructure and inadequate funding remain key obstacles. The paper concludes that addressing these challenges will depend on the active involvement of the state in ICT development.

Keywords
E-governance, ICT, Ghana
Authors
Johanna Ekua Awotwi, George Owusu
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#59
;  Young-Sik Kim, Manish Pokharel, Byung-Seub Lee
ID
#59
Abstract

E-government has become the medicine for every type of government. Every nation is trying its level best in designing e- government master plan and implementing it. Unfortunately there is still big gap in implementation level of e-Government between Most Developed Countries (MDCs) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs). In this paper, we have identified main causes of impedes in implementing e-government master plan in LDCs. We also have considered the case of MDCs. At the end of the paper, we have concluded with some recommendations for LDCs.

Keywords
Process Reengineering, Implementation, LDC, Strategy, e- Government
Authors
Young-Sik Kim, Manish Pokharel, Byung-Seub Lee
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#60
;  Robert Schware
ID
#60
Abstract

Delivering Electronic Public Services (EPS) to rural areas presents scale-up challenges, such as the cost for extending access to public infrastructure and for providing social services to low density population. Rural business centers implemented in partnership with the public sector is a new and possible sustainable model for addressing these challenges. This paper presents some issues to be considered when planning and implementing rural business centers offering EPS.

Keywords
Electronic Government, Rural Areas, Business Model
Authors
Robert Schware
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#61
;  Y. Pardhasaradhi, Safdar Ahmed
ID
#61
Abstract
The dynamics of public administration in India have altered drastically with the introduction of e-governance as a guiding concept in the late 1980s. Citizens, the world over, have been demanding smaller, effective and responsive governments, obviously inspired by the unprecedented and rapid success of finance capital in the global market. Consequently, policy makers began the search for smaller and efficient governments. On an evolutionary plane, reengineering of service systems, performance management, transparency in government operations, down sizing or right sizing the government workforce, emphasis on delivery of reliable public services and ultimately citizen satisfaction came to be considered as benchmarks by most of the administrators. Quick decision-making, data-based planning, effective implementation through quantitative techniques seemed to have clinched the issue. This reformative pattern was no different in the Indian context, where the governments at the federal and state levels were in search of new techniques and technologies. Information technology has been found to be very useful in reinvigorating the government administrative systems by enhancing their capacity and efficiency. The potential and scope for application of IT in governing processes and transactions are enormous. E-government can transform traditional administrative systems through employment of information and communication technologies. A governance system that is committed to working with civil society, and by extension, private industry in a transparent and accountable way to reduce poverty, redress imbalances in access to resources, foster security and uphold social, economic, cultural, civil and political rights is the ultimate objective of e-governance theory. In practice, much depends on the collaboration patterns that the governments seek to establish. E-governance practices in India emerged and evolved mainly from native intuition, but under prescription for lesser and transparent government by international financial institutions, mainly the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. However, the range of success of e-governance initiatives has not been uniform. The bottom-up demand for delivery of electronic services was bleak initially, but the change in public perception was for the better with the governments roping in private industry and service-oriented organizations gradually.
The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model as is construed normally in a world that is fast witnessing globalization of all businesses and administrative trends, especially in the realm of e- governance, involves features such lesser government investment in electronic delivery of public services, collaboration in conceptualizing, designing and implementing the e-governance projects besides increased participation of stakeholders – both private and public – to saturate the levels and the reach of such projects. India is no exception to the general rule dictating PPP mode in e-governance. The unprecedented success of the PPP modules in e-governance in India can be rightly established with two path-breaking e- governance models – e-Seva in the state of Andhra Pradesh and Bhoomi in Karnataka. These projects not only caused a jump in revenue collections of the two state governments, but also timely payment by the citizens. Time and costs for availing public services have come down drastically bringing in a positive change in peoples’ perception of e-governance theory and practice. This holds equally true for both the rural and urban populace. The result of all these radical changes in public administration systems is the enhanced satisfaction level of the citizenry on delivery of public services and simplification of governmental procedures. The above mentioned e-government projects can serve as models for all the developing societies.
Keywords
Bhoomi, E-Governance Practices, E-Seva, Efficiency, Public Private Collaboration
Authors
Y. Pardhasaradhi, Safdar Ahmed
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#62
;  Nandita Chaudhri, Shefali S. Dash
ID
#62
Abstract

The eight North Eastern states of India have traditionally been less developed due to geographic remoteness and difficult hilly terrain. The Government of India in 2002 set up 487 Community Information Centers (CICs) at the block level. The CICs, besides offering basic services like Internet browsing, E-mail and Training in computer fundamentals, also provide citizen centric or G2C services. E-Suvidha is a single-window front-end for such services and is offered by many CICs. A Block Community Portal or individual website has been developed for each CIC which provides an interactive platform for collaboration within and outside the community and information of local interest. Several proactive CIC operators are implementing some praiseworthy best practices at the CICs under different categories viz, electoral activity, e-Governance services, examination results and other multifarious activities. Awareness programs are conducted by the CIC operators.

The CICs have been established against insuperable odds. They have substantially impacted socio-economic development of the region. This paper elucidates how e-Government services are being delivered virtually at the doorstep of citizens for their all round benefit and development of the region.

Keywords
e-Governance, IT, Internet Kiosks, Information Services, Tele- centres, Education, Entertainment, Citizen Services, Permanent Account Number (PAN)
Authors
Nandita Chaudhri, Shefali S. Dash
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#63
;  Neat Verma, Sangeeta Singh, Durga Prasad Misra
ID
#63
Abstract

The most powerful weapon on the earth is public opinion [Paul Crouser]

Governance encompasses not just government, but also the civil society, the systems, the procedures and processes in place for planning, management and decision-making. Fostering sound public judgment through informed and thoughtful debate is one of the key aspects of the Good Governance. The growing use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools is resulting knowledge based societies and providing greater avenues to the informed masses to participate in the development process. Provision of 'Anytime-Anywhere Access’ to government information and services through Internet has been an important facilitator of Good Governance.

A concept of Government to Citizen to Government (G2C2G) in many ways is opening up of avenues for direct participation of individuals in the governance processes [6]. This model fully exploits the potential of ICT/Internet and leverages it for greater participation, efficiency and transparency in functioning of the government as well as savings in time and costs relating to decision-making.

In order to provide seamless integrated of information and services, Government of India launched National Portal of India two years back as a Mission Mode Project under the National e- Governance Plan (NeGP) of Prime Minister of India. One of the mandates of the National Portal of India is to provide a platform for encouraging Citizens’ Participation in the process of governance in the country.

The Sixth Central Pay Commission, constituted by Government of India to revise the pay and perks of government employees, has leveraged on the initiatives of the National Portal of India to invite comments and suggestions in response to a questionnaire. This paper illustrates how the strength and reach of ICT can be leveraged to gather opinions from all stakeholders & citizens and enable them to participate in the process of governance.

Keywords
Keywords Public Participation, Pay Commission, National Portal of India, Good Governance, ICT Enabled Decision Making Process
Authors
Neat Verma, Sangeeta Singh, Durga Prasad Misra
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#64
;  Robert O. Dode
ID
#64
Abstract

E-governance is a democratic practice that is gradually gaining universal acceptance and applicability. It refers to a governmental type aimed at achieving effective service delivery from government to citizens, moving governance from traditionalist bureaucratization to modernist participatory administration. This paper is situated within the global experience, where many countries have advanced in their practice of e-governance and Nigeria, as a nation cannot relish in the disadvantages of being left behind in a globalizing world. We strongly propose that there is a significant relationship between a country’ s technological, political and bureaucratic advancement and a successful e- governance practice. This paper argues that with the present poor state of social infrastructure (especially power supply and road network) in Nigeria, the practice of e-governance is most likely to be negatively impacted upon. On this note, our paper recommends a re-assessment of the country’s state of e-governance preparedness. It recommends the application of proactive steps aimed at ensuring the adequate supply of electricity and the development of human resource capabilities of the populace with the aim of achieving high-level computer literacy. The interval convocation of stakeholders at Abuja for talk-shops is not enough. Rather, Internet facilities and services must of necessity be made easily accessible at the lowest cost, to all Nigerians, irrespective of how remote their locations in the country may be. The world is on the move and Nigeria is an integral part of it, hence, should not lag behind.

Keywords
E-Governance, Globalizing World, Computer Literacy, Internet Users, Public Servants
Authors
Robert O. Dode
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#65
;  Mawaki Chango
ID
#65
Abstract

In this paper, we attempt to address the broader question as to why in Africa, e-government projects in general have higher rate of failure than success. Based on documentary analysis and using the information ecology framework, we critically analyze the case of The Gambia as e-government prototype country selected by the Economic Commission for Africa. We further discuss the value assumptions and implications, and propose an approach that will include value sensitive design as a way to address the design- reality gap in order to minimize the risks for failure. In the process, a number of questions, issues and challenges are identified as possible foci for future research.

Keywords
Africa, Information, Government, E-Government, Governance, Gambia, Ecology, UNECA, Communication, ICT, Internet, V alue, V alue Sensitive Design, Design, Design-Reality Gap, Organization, Survey, Service, Administration
Authors
Mawaki Chango
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#66
;  Anastasia A. Golubeva
ID
#66
Abstract

The paper presents the case-study of Russian regional government portals assessment based on the public value concept. Since the middle of the 90th this concept has been implemented into public administration practice as a basis for monitoring of efficiency of administrative reforms and development of public services quality standards. The paper provides the pilot research results obtained, and some recommendations related to regional government portals improvement.

Keywords
Public Value Concept, Citizen-Centric Approach, Government Quality, Public E-Services, Regional Government Portals
Authors
Anastasia A. Golubeva
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#67
;  Pierre Rössel, Matthias Finger
ID
#67
Abstract

In this paper, we aimed at conceptualizing the notion of e- governance, as there is a need to explore the new configurations and knowledge issues having emerged out of such pressures as globalization, economic competitiveness, the evolution of the State and the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs). In fact, we postulate that there is a constant and necessary readjustment to be made between the trend towards technological innovation and the need for regulation and institutional acknowledgement and transformation. This co- evolutionary process goes far beyond the mere extension of government action onto non -State actors, as e-governance is too often understood. We see this process rather as a collective problem-solving dynamics, involving several types of stakeholders, among which, often, the State and its diverse representatives, but not only and by far, have to operate in a multi-level and open-ended space ICTs, in that type of process, are multi-faceted, sometimes just tools for productivity or communication, but sometimes also an industrial sector of its own, that has to be supported and regulated, as part of a critical series of structural change factors impacting our society. In this evolution, administrative services have been thought of, too often, as the main objective of e-governance, but we see now the need for an enhanced capability framework in policy-making and regulation, involving a broader mindset when it comes to use and regulate ICTs.

Keywords
Electronic Governance, E-Governance, Governance, Management of Technology, Institutional Economics, Regulation, Policy- Making, Government, E-Government, Co-Evolution
Authors
Pierre Rössel, Matthias Finger
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#68
;  Hans J (Jochen) Scholl, Shuhua Liu, Raya Fidel, Kristene Unsworth
ID
#68
Abstract

Field Force Automation (FFA) has been introduced as the summary term for the redesign of workflows and business processes in the field by means of fully mobile wirelessly connected technologies and applications. In practice, governments around the world have increasingly begun to explore the potential of FFA by equipping field crews with mobile technologies and applications. FFA in government promises substantial gains in crew productivity and information quality in on-site decision making. However, as in the case of other far-reaching technology- enabled changes in the past, FFA requires numerous technical, organizational, and social adjustments to reach the targeted potential. We have studied the case of a US city government that introduced FFA in its public utilities service units a while ago. While FFA lives up to promise in some areas, it does not so in others. Based on the analyses of the work context and the FFA uses, we have developed a set of recommendations for improving both the technical and organizational sides of the FFA approach. While some recommendations might be case-specific, others appear to apply to e-Government FFA in general. In this paper, we detail and discuss the choices that governments may face in FFA projects. The contribution of this paper is that it helps guide other FFA projects. The paper also adds to the academic understanding of the challenges and choices in e-Government FFA.

Keywords
E-Government, Digital Government, Mobile Government, Fully Mobile Wirelessly Connected (FMWC), Ubiquitous Computing, Pervasive Computing, Field Force Automation (FFA), Work- Centered Design, Integration, Interfacing, Work Content, Workflow, Work Context, Business Process Analysis, Cognitive Work Analysis, Cognitive Systems Engineering, Information Systems
Authors
Hans J (Jochen) Scholl, Shuhua Liu, Raya Fidel, Kristene Unsworth
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#69
;  Maria A. Wimmer
ID
#69
Abstract

The eGovRTD2020 project was funded within the 6th Framework Program of the EC. It aimed at developing a research roadmap for e-government based on visionary scenarios sketching potential futures of how Governments, society and the business sector might interact in 2020 thereby using advanced ICT. The project has recently published its final results. In this contribution, these results are summarized and reflected. The project performed an online survey among international experts to assess the importance of the thirteen research themes developed throughout the project. Results show that there are differences in the perception of the importance of a research theme in terms of geographical regions, level of development and stakeholder groups. Based on this discussion, further reflections address the needs and forms of action for fostering and implementing e- government research in the near future.

Keywords
E-Government Research; Future Scenarios; Research Roadmap; Comprehensive Roadmapping Methodology;
Authors
Maria A. Wimmer
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#70
;  Majed Ayyad
ID
#70
Abstract

In many countries, there is tendency to implement e-Government at the Central level. However, in a country like Palestine, with unstable economical and political situation, e-Government is thought at smaller scales through many decentralized initiatives. Most likely these initiatives are not coordinated or endorsed by a Central unit. This article combines theoretical frameworks [such as Balanced Scorecard, Enterprise Architecture and Strategic Management] and empirical experiences to design a model to enable the data flow between decentralized local government units (LGUs) and central government. The Model illustrates the usefulness of adopting a top-down approach across the five layers of the Enterprise Architecture to develop a cross-agency, multi- purpose and multi-layer data model using standard XML domain schemas

Keywords
Local e-Government, Strategy MAP , Cascaded Balanced Scorecards, Enterprise Architecture
Authors
Majed Ayyad
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#71
;  Adamantios Koumpis,, Marios Chatzidimitriou, Vasiliki Moumtzi, Vassilios Peristeras
ID
#71
Abstract

Work reported in this paper relates with work carried out in the context of two European IST Projects namely SemanticGov (www.semantic-gov.org) and OneStopGov (www.onestopgov- project.org). Both projects aim at implementing innovative Web technologies for adoption in the European public sector to advance the level and expand the volume of e-Government solutions in EU.

Keywords
Community Building, Capacity Building, People, Policies, Practices, Processes, Citizen Organizational Initiatives, Society Inclusion Initiatives, Government Collaboration Patterns Research
Authors
Adamantios Koumpis,, Marios Chatzidimitriou, Vasiliki Moumtzi, Vassilios Peristeras
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#72
;  Mohamed Saïd Ouerghi
ID
#72
Abstract

This paper includes two important parts. The first one intends to briefly present the e-tunisia project. The second one is intended to explicate the Tunisian strategic initiatives to address the Governance of ICT and the ICT for Governance.

Keywords
ICT for Governance, Governance of ICT, Tunisian 5A StrategyThis paper includes two important parts. The first one intends to briefly present the e-tunisia project. The second one is intended to explicate the Tunisian strategic initiatives to address the Governance of ICT and the ICT for Governance.
Authors
Mohamed Saïd Ouerghi
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#73
;  Pierre Dandjinou
ID
#73
Abstract

An assessment of current state of e-Governance in Africa notes that while many initiatives and projects are being implemented throughout Africa, the application of ICT for better governance is not systematic and the impacts are uneven. Thus two cases in Africa, Cape Verde, a small island of 500,000 inhabitants off the coast of Senegal in west Africa and South Africa, an emerging African country of 40 million inhabitants demonstrate that following the example of many governments around the world, Information and communication technologies have been used in the last decades to improve public service delivery and the operations of government. While these so called e-Government programs have started to yield significant benefits in terms of convenience, efficiency and service quality for citizens, businesses and public agencies alike, new trends are emerging which involve more than applying the technologies than promoting social and economic inclusiveness and furthering participation and democracy at large. This paper elaborates on key lessons learnt from Cape Verde and South Africa on the one hand, and envisages how those two countries and the African continent could still harness the new opportunities for deepening reform in public service delivery and citizen engagement on the other hand.

Keywords
Cape Verde, South Africa, e-Governance, e-Participation, e- Services
Authors
Pierre Dandjinou
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#74
;  Ganbold Nyamdorj
ID
#74
Abstract

This paper reviews the possibilities of using Public, Private Partnership (PPP) in electronic government (e-government) projects. It also briefly explain about how the Government of Mongolia developed PPP framework in order to enable proper environment for achieving best result in public procurement including infrastructures for e-government.

Keywords
Management, Economics
Authors
Ganbold Nyamdorj
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#75
;  John M. Kandiri, Silas Onyango
ID
#75
Abstract

This paper explores how the Kenyan government can exploit the immense potential of e-governance in schools so as to see successful implementation of the government funded secondary education. E-government refers to the integration of Information and communication technology (ICT) in governance. ICT plays a vital role in mitigating the challenges which government systems face. These challenges include information asymmetry and non- neutrality which result from imperfect contractual relations among the actors [4, 6]. The paper proposes ways to tackle the e- government implementation challenges for schools.

Keywords
E-government, e-government Portals, ICT challenges
Authors
John M. Kandiri, Silas Onyango
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#76
;  Abdul Raufu Ambali, Rozalli Hashim
ID
#76
Abstract

This paper focused on the trends and the policy issues that serve as impediments for successful application of e-government in Malaysia. It also explores various initiatives that have been taken by the government to bridge the gap through two broaden questions: does citizen disparity matter in successful application of e-government in the public sector? What kinds of policy initiatives might be needed to ensure that large segments of citizens are included in e-government implementations?

Keywords
E-Government, Trends, Policy Issues, Initiatives
Authors
Abdul Raufu Ambali, Rozalli Hashim
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#77
;  Zden?k Struska, Ji?í Vaní?ek
ID
#77
Abstract

The area of applications development for government purposes can be characterized as very specific. Projects are usually more complex and there are some other differences in comparison with private projects. This paper aims to highlight the differences in the area of software development complexity estimation. A supplier who develops an information system or an e-Government application for government would have to consider a number of issues that are not important for classical projects. One of them is the political cycle, when many change requirements appear in the situation of government replacement. The paper introduces a method of complexity estimation and its use for e-Government.

Keywords
Complexity Estimation, E-government Application, Function and Feature Points, COCOMO, Use Case Points, BORM Points, Customer Requirements, Development of Information System, Political Cycle
Authors
Zden?k Struska, Ji?í Vaní?ek
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#78
;  Diana Ishmatova
ID
#78
Abstract

In this poster, key challenges for studying user preferences are outlined and addressed as part of the proposed approach based on linking a service with its potential realizations. The approach is illustrated using a case study of information mobile campus services.

Keywords
m-Government Services, User Needs, User Preferences
Authors
Diana Ishmatova
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#79
;  Bimal Pratap Shah, Subarna Shakya
ID
#79
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to evaluate 27 central government websites of the government of Nepal using web-based analysis tool called “Bobby”. The evaluation is based on the Web Content Accessibility guidelines (WCAG) provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The results of the evaluation, the importance of Web accessibility and recommendations for improvement are highlighted in the paper.
Keywords
E-government, Web Accessibility, W3C, WCAG, Government of Nepal, Government websites
Authors
Bimal Pratap Shah, Subarna Shakya
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#80
;  Pengzhu Zhang, Lin Zhu
ID
#80
Abstract

Community E-Government has been playing an important role in urban informatization. This paper describes the grid administration system and a case of the street civil service application system in Wuliqiao Street in Luwan District – a major district in Shanghai. Since urban government can provide to civil citizens high level services and good environment for living and working through grid E-Government platform, this study provides a model of community E-Government application utilizing design research approach and combining grid administration and service.

Keywords
Shanghai, Community, Grid
Authors
Pengzhu Zhang, Lin Zhu
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#81
;  Mohammad Lagzian
ID
#81
Abstract

To understand the influences of the factors in the E-government developmental process, a conceptual framework has been devised to explain the main dimensions of this transition. Based on the framework, E-government challenges are placed in three broad categories, rooted in phases of the E-government lifecycle which are: the challenges related to the traditional model of bureaucracy, the transformation stage, and the implementation stage of seamless government. The framework is aimed to contribute to explicit understanding of the E-government development process at a country level. The areas that will be addressed within the proposed framework will be discussed in detail.

Keywords
n/a
Authors
Mohammad Lagzian
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library
#82
;  Mona Sharma
ID
#82
Abstract

Rural internet access is extremely limited in Nepal, and negligible in the remote mountainous areas that make up most of the country. Access to these areas is mostly by foot, several days from the nearest road head; infrastructure and basic services such as government, health and education-related services are negligible. Despite the government’s ambitious plans and policies to improve access to ICT services to the rural population, including some e- governance services, ICT deployment and use has remained minimal outside urban centers. Unlike urban Internet Cafes, rural telecenters in Nepal are challenged by low user literacy and information use potential, and limited revenue generation possibilities. They need support to realize the larger objectives of e-governance, e-health and e-commerce. Several modes of increasing access to e-services have been tried with minimal success. Outlined below is an approach that provides internet services to rural users linked to some life-enhancing information that impacts their daily life directly.

The Information and Communication Technology Global Development Alliance (ICT GDA) is a partnership between Mercantile Communications Private Limited and Winrock International-Nepal. This activity facilitates overall community mobilization by providing services through ICT telecenters to improve rural connectivity through the use of telephony, internet email and related services. The project provides connectivity through VSAT and is among the first non-commercial venture to extend connectivity through Wi-Fi networks, creating local loops in remote areas. The project has built partnerships with principle stakeholders in the field of ICT promotion in Nepal, both government and private sector. Multisectoral linkages between e- governance and other services have been established through relevant local bodies, organizations in the development sector, and communities in order to deliver fast and reliable services to achieve universal objectives pertaining to poverty alleviation, education, health and hygiene.

Keywords
Multi Stakeholder Approach, Rural Access and Services, Rural Connectivity, Wi-Fi
Authors
Mona Sharma
Conference
ICEGOV2007
URL
ACM Digital Library

Institutions

Patron
  • Government of Macau SAR, China

 

Co-organized by
  • Center for Electronic Governance, United Nations University International Institute for Software Technology
  • Center for Technology in Government, University at Albany, State University of New York
  • United Nations Asian and Pacific Training Centre for Information and Communication Technology for Development

Comittees

Conference Committee

Sharon DAWES, Center for Technology in Government, United States, General Co-Chair
Elsa ESTEVEZ, UNU-IIST-EGOV, Macau SAR, Publicity Chair
Bernd FRIEDRICH, UNU-IIST-EGOV, Macau SAR, Organization Chair
Tomasz JANOWSKI, UNU-IIST-EGOV, Macau SAR, Program Co-Chair
Adegboyega OJO, UNU-IIST-EGOV, Macau SAR, Events Chair
Theresa PARDO, Center for Technology in Government, United States, Program Co-Chair
Mike REED, UNU-IIST, Macau SAR, General Co-Chair

 

Advisory Committee

Agunloye OLU, NEGST, Nigeria
Guido BERTUCCI, UNDESA, United States
Jonathan BREUL, IBM, United States
David CHEUNG, HKU, Hong Kong
Chang-Hank CHOI, PGCID, South Korea
Valerie GREGG, DGRC/USC, United States
Tomasz JANOWSKI, UNU-IIST-EGOV, Macau SAR
Hyeun-Suk RHEE, UN/APCICT, South Korea
Tom ROBERTSON, Microsoft, United States
Ekwow SPIO-GARBATH, CTO, United Kingdom
Chi Man TOU, MSARG, Macau SAR
Roland TRAUNMÜLLER, University of Linz, Austria

 

Program Committee

Hamideh AFSARMANESH, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
Dennis ANDERSON, GAID, Pace University, United States
Robert BIUK-AGHAI, University of Macau, Macao
Luís CAMARINHA-MATOS, UNINOVA, Portugal
Alejandra CECHICH, University of Comahue, Argentina
Wojciech CELLARY, Poznan University of Economics, Poland
Samuel CHAN, MSARG, Macao
Monique CHARBONNEAU, CEFRIO, Canada
Noshir CONTRACTOR, University of Illinois at UC, United States
Jim DAVIES, Oxford University, United Kingdom
Lester DIAMOND, US Social Security Administration, United States
Matthias FINGER, ETH, Switzerland
Mariagrazia FUGINI, Politechnic of Milan, Italy
Kokichi FUTATSUGI, JAIST, Japan
Yanbo HAN, ICT Institute, CAS, China
Richard HEEKS, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Chris HINNANT, US General Accountability Office, United States
Tomasz JANOWSKI, Program Co-Chair, UNU-IIST-EGOV, Macao
Marijn JANSSEN, TU Delft, Netherlands
Young Sik KIM, KOICA/NITC, South Korea
Ralf KLISCHEWSKI, German University of Cairo, Egypt
Yoon-Seok KO, PCGID, South Korea
Paddy KRISHNAN, Bond University, Australia
Hun-Yeong KWON, NIA, South Korea
Jimmy LEE, CUHK, Hong Kong
Ann MACIONTOSH, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Robert MASLYN, US General Services Administration, United States
Muna MATAR, Bethlehem University, Palestine
Maria Isabel MEJIA JARAMILLO, Agenda Conectividad, Colombia
Jeremy MILLARD, Danish Technology Institute, Denmark
Hrushikesha MOHANTY, University of Hyderabad, India
Vikas NATH, South Centre, Switzerland
Tsend NYAMKHUU, ICTA, Mongolia
Toshio OBI, Waseda University, Japan
Adenike OSOFISAN, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Theresa PARDO, Program Co-Chair, CTG
Vasillios PERISTERAS, DERI, Ireland
Randy RAMUSACK, Microsoft, United States
Vivek S. RANA, AAC Inc., Nepal
Philipp SCHMIDT, Univ. of Western Cape, South Africa
Jochen SCHOLL, University of Washington, United States
Robert SCHWARE, GLP, United States
Charles SCHWEIK, UMass Amherst, United States
Madeleine SIÖSTEEN THIEL, VINNOVA, Sweden
Maddalena SORRENTINO, University of Milan, Italy
K. SUBRAMANIAN, NIC/CAG, India
A Min TJOA, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Michael TURNER, e-Government Strategies, Canada
Maria WIMMER, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany

 

Additional Reviewers

Pietro Luca AGOSTINI
Silvia AMARO
Rilwan BASANYA
Francesco BOLICI
Agustina BUCCELLA
Walter CASTELNOVO
Ekaterina ERMILOVA
Elsa ESTEVEZ
Timo HERBORN
Weiqiang KONG
Nikos LOUTAS
Ansgar MONDORF
Simon Samwel MSANJILA
Odetunji ODEJOBI
Adegboyega OJO
Manish POKHAREL
Neeraj POUDYAL
Sabrina SCHERER
Daniel SCHMIDT
Christian SCHNEIDER
Bimal Pratap SHAH
Aadya SHUKLA
Francesco VIRILI


Institutions